Hyperinnervation improves Xenopus laevis limb regeneration

Kazumasa Mitogawa, Aki Makanae, Akira Satoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Xenopus laevis (an anuran amphibian) shows limb regeneration ability between that of urodele amphibians and that of amniotes. Xenopus frogs can initiate limb regeneration but fail to form patterned limbs. Regenerated limbs mainly consist of cone-shaped cartilage without any joints or branches. These pattern defects are thought to be caused by loss of proper expressions of patterning-related genes. This study shows that hyperinnervation surgery resulted in the induction of a branching regenerate. The hyperinnervated blastema allows the identification and functional analysis of the molecules controlling this patterning of limb regeneration. This paper focuses on the nerve affects to improve Xenopus limb patterning ability during regeneration. The nerve molecules, which regulate limb patterning, were also investigated. Blastemas grown in a hyperinnervated forelimb upregulate limb patterning-related genes (shh, lmx1b, and hoxa13). Nerves projecting their axons to limbs express some growth factors (bmp7, fgf2, fgf8, and shh). Inputs of these factors to a blastema upregulated some limb patterning-related genes and resulted in changes in the cartilage patterns in the regenerates. These results indicate that additional nerve factors enhance Xenopus limb patterning-related gene expressions and limb regeneration ability, and that bmp, fgf, and shh are candidate nerve substitute factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-286
Number of pages11
JournalDevelopmental Biology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 15 2018


  • Amphibian
  • Blastema
  • Limb regeneration
  • Nerve
  • Xenopus laevis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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