A number of basic and clinical researches have revealed that hydrogen is an important physiological regulatory factor with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic protective effects on cells and organs, with properties to mitigate various disease status. Recently, hydrogen gas has been identified as a signaling gas molecule like nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Therapeutic hydrogen has been applied by different delivery methods including straightforward inhalation, drinking hydrogen dissolved in water and injection with hydrogen-saturated saline. Herein, I summarize currently available data regarding the protective role of hydrogen in medicine, provide an outline of recent advances in research on the use of hydrogen as a therapeutic medical gas in diverse models of disease, and discuss the feasibility of hydrogen as a therapeutic strategy. Hydrogen's impact on therapeutic and preventive medicine could be enormous in the future.
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