Hybridomas expressing murine γδ T-cell receptors were found to produce cytokines in response to cardiolipin (CL) and structurally related anionic phospholipids. This response required serum at concentrations related to the amount of CL in cultures. The purified serum factor, β 2-glycoprotein 1 (β2-GP1) (apolipoprotein H), supported the CL response alone, whereas several other serum proteins and ovalbumin did not. β2-GP1 is known to form complexes with anionic phospholipids, particularly CL, which are often recognized by pathological autoantibodies. We speculate that γδ T cells also recognize such complexes and that the hybridoma response reported here reflects this specificity.
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