A hybrid procedure combining bilateral pulmonary artery banding with ductal stenting has recently been used as stage I palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. However, the advantage of the hybrid procedure over the Norwood procedure on ventricular energetics remains unclear. To clarify this, we performed a computational analysis with a combination of time-varying elastance chamber model and modified three-element Windkessel vascular model. Although mean pulmonary artery (PA) pressure, pulmonary flow, and oxygen saturation were almost equivalent with the Norwood procedure, the hybrid procedure delivered higher systolic and lower diastolic systemic arterial pressures compared to the Norwood procedure with right ventricle (RV) to PA shunt. As a result, the hybrid procedure yielded increased systolic pressure–volume area and impaired mechanical efficiency. Therefore, the hybrid procedure has probably no advantage on ventricular energetics compared to the Norwood procedure with a RV-PA shunt.
- Computational model
- Hybrid procedure
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
- Norwood procedure
- Ventricular energetics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine