Hourly differences in air pollution and risk of respiratory disease in the elderly

A time-stratified case-crossover study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Epidemiological studies have shown adverse effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory disease outcomes; however, few studies examined this association on an hourly time scale. We evaluated the associations between hourly changes in air pollution and the risk of respiratory disease in the elderly, using the time of the emergency call as the disease onset for each case. Methods. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design. Study participants were 6,925 residents of the city of Okayama, Japan, aged 65 or above who were taken to hospital emergency rooms between January 2006 and December 2010 for onset of respiratory disease. We calculated city-representative hourly average concentrations of air pollutants from several monitoring stations. By using conditional logistic regression models, we estimated odds ratios per interquartile-range increase in each pollutant by exposure period prior to emergency call, adjusting for hourly ambient temperature, hourly relative humidity, and weekly numbers of reported influenza cases aged ≥60. Results: Suspended particulate matter (SPM) exposure 24 to 2) exposure 0 to 2was observed at shorter lags (i.e., 8-18 hours) than the elevated risks for respiratory disease of SPM or ozone. Overall, the effect estimates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions were equivocal. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that hourly changes in air pollution exposure increase the risks of respiratory disease, and that SO2may be related with more immediate onset of the disease than other pollutants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number67
JournalEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 13 2014

Fingerprint

Air Pollution
Cross-Over Studies
Particulate Matter
Emergencies
Logistic Models
Air Pollutants
Ozone
Humidity
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Human Influenza
Hospital Emergency Service
Epidemiologic Studies
Japan
Odds Ratio
Temperature

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Ozone
  • Particulate matter
  • Respiratory disease
  • Short-term effect
  • Sulfur dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Hourly differences in air pollution and risk of respiratory disease in the elderly: A time-stratified case-crossover study",
abstract = "Background: Epidemiological studies have shown adverse effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory disease outcomes; however, few studies examined this association on an hourly time scale. We evaluated the associations between hourly changes in air pollution and the risk of respiratory disease in the elderly, using the time of the emergency call as the disease onset for each case. Methods. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design. Study participants were 6,925 residents of the city of Okayama, Japan, aged 65 or above who were taken to hospital emergency rooms between January 2006 and December 2010 for onset of respiratory disease. We calculated city-representative hourly average concentrations of air pollutants from several monitoring stations. By using conditional logistic regression models, we estimated odds ratios per interquartile-range increase in each pollutant by exposure period prior to emergency call, adjusting for hourly ambient temperature, hourly relative humidity, and weekly numbers of reported influenza cases aged ≥60. Results: Suspended particulate matter (SPM) exposure 24 to 2) exposure 0 to 2was observed at shorter lags (i.e., 8-18 hours) than the elevated risks for respiratory disease of SPM or ozone. Overall, the effect estimates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions were equivocal. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that hourly changes in air pollution exposure increase the risks of respiratory disease, and that SO2may be related with more immediate onset of the disease than other pollutants.",
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N2 - Background: Epidemiological studies have shown adverse effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory disease outcomes; however, few studies examined this association on an hourly time scale. We evaluated the associations between hourly changes in air pollution and the risk of respiratory disease in the elderly, using the time of the emergency call as the disease onset for each case. Methods. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design. Study participants were 6,925 residents of the city of Okayama, Japan, aged 65 or above who were taken to hospital emergency rooms between January 2006 and December 2010 for onset of respiratory disease. We calculated city-representative hourly average concentrations of air pollutants from several monitoring stations. By using conditional logistic regression models, we estimated odds ratios per interquartile-range increase in each pollutant by exposure period prior to emergency call, adjusting for hourly ambient temperature, hourly relative humidity, and weekly numbers of reported influenza cases aged ≥60. Results: Suspended particulate matter (SPM) exposure 24 to 2) exposure 0 to 2was observed at shorter lags (i.e., 8-18 hours) than the elevated risks for respiratory disease of SPM or ozone. Overall, the effect estimates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions were equivocal. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that hourly changes in air pollution exposure increase the risks of respiratory disease, and that SO2may be related with more immediate onset of the disease than other pollutants.

AB - Background: Epidemiological studies have shown adverse effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory disease outcomes; however, few studies examined this association on an hourly time scale. We evaluated the associations between hourly changes in air pollution and the risk of respiratory disease in the elderly, using the time of the emergency call as the disease onset for each case. Methods. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design. Study participants were 6,925 residents of the city of Okayama, Japan, aged 65 or above who were taken to hospital emergency rooms between January 2006 and December 2010 for onset of respiratory disease. We calculated city-representative hourly average concentrations of air pollutants from several monitoring stations. By using conditional logistic regression models, we estimated odds ratios per interquartile-range increase in each pollutant by exposure period prior to emergency call, adjusting for hourly ambient temperature, hourly relative humidity, and weekly numbers of reported influenza cases aged ≥60. Results: Suspended particulate matter (SPM) exposure 24 to 2) exposure 0 to 2was observed at shorter lags (i.e., 8-18 hours) than the elevated risks for respiratory disease of SPM or ozone. Overall, the effect estimates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions were equivocal. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that hourly changes in air pollution exposure increase the risks of respiratory disease, and that SO2may be related with more immediate onset of the disease than other pollutants.

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