Aims: Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour, mixed connective tissue variant (PMT-MCT), is a tumour of uncertain differentiation, characterised by ‘smudgy/grungy’ calcification and vitamin D-resistant phosphaturic osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 is recognised as a reliable marker of PMT-MCT, but quantitative evaluation has never been performed. We reviewed cases of tumour-associated osteomalacia or histologically definitive PMT-MCT without osteomalacia using histological, immunohistochemical and genetic methods and evaluated the diagnostic significance of these findings. Methods and results: A total of 19 tumours from 14 cases diagnosed previously as PMT-MCT were retrieved, on which immunohistochemical staining, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis were performed. Histologically, fibrous capsule, calcification and giant cell reaction tended to be observed in soft-tissue PMT-MCT, while PMT-MCT of bone and multiple PMT-MCT showed an infiltrative growth pattern. The immunohistochemical results were as follows: the tumour cells were positive for FGF23 (nine of 12, 75%), FGFR1 (11 of 11, 100%), CD56 (12 of 14, 85.7%) and E26 oncogene homologue (ERG) (5 of 13, 38.4%). The sole malignant tumour was positive for p53. FGF23 mRNA was detected in seven of 14 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens and all five frozen specimens by RT–PCR. The level of FGF23 mRNA, which was determined by real-time PCR, varied among the phosphaturic cases. Two of 17 tumours were positive for FGFR1 gene rearrangement. Conclusions: It was considered that PMT-MCT is a histopathological entity with or without phosphaturia, with varying levels of FGF23 mRNA, and with or without fibronectin 1 (FN1)–FGFR1 fusion gene. The authors propose that the histology of PMT-MCT differs depending on its location, such as bone or soft tissue, which could complicate the differential diagnosis.
- phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine