Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperplasia is known to be an important component in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and restenosis. Although heparin has been well recognized as the representative molecule suppressing SMC growth in vitro, attempts to use heparin as a therapeutic anti-restenosis drug have not favorably influenced the angiographic or clinical outcome after angioplasty in some clinical trials. In this study, we have examined the effect of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), a relatively abundant serum glycoprotein (∼100 μg/ml in human serum), on the growth inhibition of cultured vascular SMC by heparin. Vascular SMC growth was significantly inhibited by heparin, giving nearly 85% inhibition with 100 μg/ml heparin. HRG reversed heparin-induced SMC growth inhibition in a dose dependent manner; 75% restoration of cell growth was observed when 100 μg/ml of HRG was co-added with 100 μg/ml heparin. Interestingly, micromolar concentrations of the zinc ion (0-10 μM), compatible with concentrations released from activated platelets, were found to enhance the restorative action of HRG. Western blot experiment demonstrated no significant amounts of the HRG moiety in fetal bovine serum, eliminating the possible contribution of contaminant HRG from culture media. These findings indicate that HRG, in combination with the zinc ion, plays a role in modulating the SMC growth response in pathophysiological states and explain the lack of success of heparin as a therapeutic anti-restenosis drug in clinical trials.
- Histidine-rich glycoprotein
- Smooth muscle cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cell Biology