Various biomarkers have been proposed for sepsis; however, only a few become the standard. We previously reported that plasma histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) levels decreased in septic mice, and supplemental infusion of HRG improved survival in mice model of sepsis. Moreover, our previous clinical study demonstrated that HRG levels in septic patients were lower than those in noninfective systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients, and it could be a biomarker for sepsis. In this study, we focused on septic patients and assessed the differences in HRG levels between the non-survivors and survivors. We studied ICU patients newly diagnosed with sepsis. Blood samples were collected within 24 h of ICU admission, and HRG levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ninety-nine septic patients from 11 institutes in Japan were included. HRG levels were significantly lower in non-survivors (n = 16) than in survivors (n = 83) (median, 15.1 [interquartile ranges, 12.7–16.6] vs. 30.6 [22.1–39.6] µg/ml; p < 0.01). Survival analysis revealed that HRG levels were associated with mortality (hazard ratio 0.79, p < 0.01), and the Harrell C-index (predictive power) for HRG was 0.90. These results suggested that HRG could be a novel prognostic biomarker for sepsis.
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