High frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriers at a Japanese long-term care hospital

Hideharu Hagiya, Yuji Onishi, Natsumi Shinohara, Mayumi Tokuyasu, Aki Imanishi, Shinnosuke Fukushima, Lutfun Nahar, Koji Iio, Fumio Otsuka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) are at a high risk for the inflow and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pathogens. However, owing to limited laboratory resources, little is known about the extent to which AMR organisms are endemic. Methods: We performed active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in newly admitted patients at Marugame Medical Center, a nearly 200-bedded LTCH located in Kagawa, Japan. From August to December 2021, we tested stool samples from patients wearing diapers and confirmed the genetic variants using specific PCR assays. We also collected clinical variables and compared them between AMR carriers and non-carriers. Results: Stool samples were collected from 75 patients, with a median age of 84 years. CRE strain was not detected, but 37 strains of ESBL-E were isolated from 32 patients (42.7%). During the study period, 4.9% of in-hospital patients (37 per 756 patients) were identified to be ESBL-E carriers in the routine microbiological processing, suggesting that active surveillance detected approximately 9-fold more ESBL-E carriers. The blaCTX-M-9 group was the most common (38.5%), followed by the blaTEM (26.9%). The clinical backgrounds of the ESBL-E non-carriers and carriers were not significantly different. Conclusion: Our active screening demonstrated that nearly half of the patients hospitalized or transferred to a Japanese LTCH were colonized with ESBL-E. We highlight the enforcement of universal basic infection prevention techniques at LTCHs where patients carrying AMR pathogens gather.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Aging society
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
  • Extended-spectrum β-lactamase
  • Infection prevention and control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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