Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. cv Jianxi), which shows high Al resistance, accumulates Al in the leaves. The internal detoxification mechanism was studied by purifying and identifying Al complexes in the leaves and roots. About 90% of Al accumulated in the leaves was found in the cell sap, in which the dominant organic acid was oxalic acid. Purification of the Al complex in the cell sap of leaves by molecular-sieve chromatography resulted in a complex with a ratio of Al to oxalic acid of 1:3. A 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance study of the purified cell sap revealed only one signal at a chemical shift 164.4 ppm, which was assigned to the Al-chelated carboxylic group of oxalic acid. A 27Al-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed one major signal at the chemical shift of 16.0 to 17.0 ppm, with a minor signal at the chemical shift of 11.0 to 12 ppm in both the intact roots and their cell sap, which is consistent with the Al-oxalate complexes at 1:3 and 1:2 ratios, respectively. The purified cell sap was not phytotoxic to root elongation in corn (Zea mays). All of these results indicate that Al tolerance in the roots and leaves of buckwheat is achieved by the formation of a nonphytotoxic Al-oxalate (1:3) complex.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science