Context: Although recent studies have suggested a positive role of OTX2 in pituitary as well as ocular development and function, detailed pituitary phenotypes in OTX2 mutations and OTX2 target genes for pituitary function other than HESX1 and POU1F1 remain to be determined. Objective: We aimed to examine such unresolved issues. Subjects: We studied 94 Japanese patients with various ocular or pituitary abnormalities. Results: We identified heterozygous p.K74fsX103 in case 1, p.A72fsX86 in case 2, p.G188X in two unrelated cases (3 and 4), and a 2,860,561-bp microdeletion involving OTX2 in case 5. Clinical studies revealed isolated GH deficiency in cases 1 and 5; combined pituitary hormone deficiency in case 3; abnormal pituitary structures in cases 1, 3, and 5; and apparently normal pituitary function in cases 2 and 4, together with ocular anomalies in cases 1-5. The wild-type Orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) protein transactivated the GNRH1 promoter as well as the HESX1, POU1F1, and IRBP (interstitial retinoid-binding protein) promoters, whereas the p.K74fsX103-OTX2 and p.A72fsX86-OTX2 proteins had no transactivation functions and the p.G188X-OTX2 protein had reduced (∼50%) transactivation functions for the four promoters, with no dominant-negative effect. cDNA screening identified positive OTX2 expression in the hypothalamus. Conclusions: The results imply that OTX2 mutations are associated with variable pituitary phenotype, with no genotype-phenotype correlations, and that OTX2 can transactivate GNRH1 as well as HESX1 and POU1F1.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism