Hess deep plutonic crust: Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge: New drilling at Hess Deep

Kathryn M. Gillis, Jonathan E. Snow, Adam Klaus, Gilles Guerin, Natsue Abe, Norikatsu Akizawa, Georges Ceuleneer, Michael J. Cheadle, Álden De BritoAdrião, Kathrin Faak, Trevor J. Falloon, Sarah A. Friedman, Marguerite M. Godard, Yumiko Harigane, Andrew J. Horst, Takashi Hoshide, Benoit Ildefonse, Marlon M. Jean, Barbara E. John, Juergen H. KoepkeSumiaki Machi, Jinichiro Maeda, Naomi E. Marks, Andrew M. McCaig, Romain Meyer, Antony Morris, Toshio Nozaka, Marie Python, Abhishek Saha, Robert P. Wintsch, Steve Breadley, Wayne Malone, Jean Luc Berenguer, Susan Gebbels, Nicole Kurtz, Michael Bertoli, Lisa Brandt, Kristin Bronk, Timothy Bronk, Chad Broyles, William Crawford, Lisa Crowder, David Fackler, Emily Fisher, Tim Fulton, Clayton Furman, Randy Gjesvold, Thomas Gorgas, Kevin Grigar, Margaret Hastedt, Michael Hodge, Dwight Hornbacher, William Mills, Michael Storms, Cruz St Peter, Andrew Trefethen, Garrick Van Rensburg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures. Site U1415 is located along the southern slope of an intrarift ridge within the Hess Deep Rift between 4675 and 4850 water depths. Specific hole locations were selected in the general area of the proposed drill sites (HD-01B-HD-03B) using a combination of geomorphology, seafloor observations, and shallow subsurface seismic data. A total of 16 holes were drilled. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes (U1415J and U1415P) and five single-bit holes (U1415E and U1415G-U1415I). Despite deep water depths and challenging drilling conditions, reasonable recovery for hard rock expeditions (15%-30%) was achieved at three 35-110 m deep holes (U1415I, U1415J, and U1415P). The other holes occupied during this expedition included two failed attempts to establish reentry capability (Holes U1415K and U1415M) and six jet-in tests to assess sediment thickness (Holes U1415A-U1415D, U1415F, and U1415L). Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered at Site U1415, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbro, and gabbronorite. These rocks exhibit cumulate textures similar to those found in layered basic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes. All lithologies are primitive, with Mg# between 0.76 and 0.89, falling within the global range of primitive oceanic gabbros. Spectacular modal and/or grain size layering was prevalent in >50% of the recovered core, displaying either simple or diffuse boundaries. Magmatic foliation largely defined by the shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase and olivine is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in the troctolite series and largely absent in the multitextured lay-ered series. The abundance of orthopyroxene in these primitive rocks was unexpected and deviates from the standard model for mid-ocean-ridge basalt crystallization. Pres-ervation of delicate skeletal olivine grains suggests that at least part of the recovered section of the lower crust was not subjected to significant hypersolidus or subsolidus strain. The metamorphic mineral assemblages record the cooling of primitive gabbroic lithologies from EPR magmatic conditions (>1000°C) to zeolite facies conditions (2 km beneath the sheeted dike-plutonic transition and thus represents the lower half to a third of the EPR plutonic crust. The orientation of the magmatic fabrics and magnetic inclinations of the core suggest that Site U1415 is composed of a series of 30-65 m thick blocks that likely formed by mass wasting. Sampling three or four blocks of relatively fresh rocks proved advantageous, as it facilitated observations of two distinct types of layering and troctolite units with varying grain size, lithologic associations, and textures. The mineralogical and textural relationships show that in several respects the Oman ophiolite is not the ideal model for fast-spreading ocean crust and call into question some aspects of both of the end-member accretion models that were to be tested. The results of the IODP Hess Deep Expedition 345 provide a reference section for primitive fast-spreading lower crust that did not exist before. This highlights the necessity of ocean drilling to address questions related to the origin and evolution of the lower ocean crust.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-89
Number of pages89
JournalIntegrated Ocean Drilling Program: Preliminary Reports
Issue number345
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014

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olivine
drilling
crust
Ocean Drilling Program
gabbro
texture
accretion
orthopyroxene
ophiolite
rock
clinopyroxene
lower crust
water depth
lithology
ocean
grain size
magnetic inclination
cooling
sediment thickness
mass wasting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography

Cite this

Gillis, K. M., Snow, J. E., Klaus, A., Guerin, G., Abe, N., Akizawa, N., ... Van Rensburg, G. (2014). Hess deep plutonic crust: Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge: New drilling at Hess Deep. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program: Preliminary Reports, (345), 1-89.

Hess deep plutonic crust : Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge: New drilling at Hess Deep. / Gillis, Kathryn M.; Snow, Jonathan E.; Klaus, Adam; Guerin, Gilles; Abe, Natsue; Akizawa, Norikatsu; Ceuleneer, Georges; Cheadle, Michael J.; De BritoAdrião, Álden; Faak, Kathrin; Falloon, Trevor J.; Friedman, Sarah A.; Godard, Marguerite M.; Harigane, Yumiko; Horst, Andrew J.; Hoshide, Takashi; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jean, Marlon M.; John, Barbara E.; Koepke, Juergen H.; Machi, Sumiaki; Maeda, Jinichiro; Marks, Naomi E.; McCaig, Andrew M.; Meyer, Romain; Morris, Antony; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Saha, Abhishek; Wintsch, Robert P.; Breadley, Steve; Malone, Wayne; Berenguer, Jean Luc; Gebbels, Susan; Kurtz, Nicole; Bertoli, Michael; Brandt, Lisa; Bronk, Kristin; Bronk, Timothy; Broyles, Chad; Crawford, William; Crowder, Lisa; Fackler, David; Fisher, Emily; Fulton, Tim; Furman, Clayton; Gjesvold, Randy; Gorgas, Thomas; Grigar, Kevin; Hastedt, Margaret; Hodge, Michael; Hornbacher, Dwight; Mills, William; Storms, Michael; Peter, Cruz St; Trefethen, Andrew; Van Rensburg, Garrick.

In: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program: Preliminary Reports, No. 345, 01.2014, p. 1-89.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gillis, KM, Snow, JE, Klaus, A, Guerin, G, Abe, N, Akizawa, N, Ceuleneer, G, Cheadle, MJ, De BritoAdrião, Á, Faak, K, Falloon, TJ, Friedman, SA, Godard, MM, Harigane, Y, Horst, AJ, Hoshide, T, Ildefonse, B, Jean, MM, John, BE, Koepke, JH, Machi, S, Maeda, J, Marks, NE, McCaig, AM, Meyer, R, Morris, A, Nozaka, T, Python, M, Saha, A, Wintsch, RP, Breadley, S, Malone, W, Berenguer, JL, Gebbels, S, Kurtz, N, Bertoli, M, Brandt, L, Bronk, K, Bronk, T, Broyles, C, Crawford, W, Crowder, L, Fackler, D, Fisher, E, Fulton, T, Furman, C, Gjesvold, R, Gorgas, T, Grigar, K, Hastedt, M, Hodge, M, Hornbacher, D, Mills, W, Storms, M, Peter, CS, Trefethen, A & Van Rensburg, G 2014, 'Hess deep plutonic crust: Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge: New drilling at Hess Deep', Integrated Ocean Drilling Program: Preliminary Reports, no. 345, pp. 1-89.
Gillis, Kathryn M. ; Snow, Jonathan E. ; Klaus, Adam ; Guerin, Gilles ; Abe, Natsue ; Akizawa, Norikatsu ; Ceuleneer, Georges ; Cheadle, Michael J. ; De BritoAdrião, Álden ; Faak, Kathrin ; Falloon, Trevor J. ; Friedman, Sarah A. ; Godard, Marguerite M. ; Harigane, Yumiko ; Horst, Andrew J. ; Hoshide, Takashi ; Ildefonse, Benoit ; Jean, Marlon M. ; John, Barbara E. ; Koepke, Juergen H. ; Machi, Sumiaki ; Maeda, Jinichiro ; Marks, Naomi E. ; McCaig, Andrew M. ; Meyer, Romain ; Morris, Antony ; Nozaka, Toshio ; Python, Marie ; Saha, Abhishek ; Wintsch, Robert P. ; Breadley, Steve ; Malone, Wayne ; Berenguer, Jean Luc ; Gebbels, Susan ; Kurtz, Nicole ; Bertoli, Michael ; Brandt, Lisa ; Bronk, Kristin ; Bronk, Timothy ; Broyles, Chad ; Crawford, William ; Crowder, Lisa ; Fackler, David ; Fisher, Emily ; Fulton, Tim ; Furman, Clayton ; Gjesvold, Randy ; Gorgas, Thomas ; Grigar, Kevin ; Hastedt, Margaret ; Hodge, Michael ; Hornbacher, Dwight ; Mills, William ; Storms, Michael ; Peter, Cruz St ; Trefethen, Andrew ; Van Rensburg, Garrick. / Hess deep plutonic crust : Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge: New drilling at Hess Deep. In: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program: Preliminary Reports. 2014 ; No. 345. pp. 1-89.
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title = "Hess deep plutonic crust: Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge: New drilling at Hess Deep",
abstract = "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures. Site U1415 is located along the southern slope of an intrarift ridge within the Hess Deep Rift between 4675 and 4850 water depths. Specific hole locations were selected in the general area of the proposed drill sites (HD-01B-HD-03B) using a combination of geomorphology, seafloor observations, and shallow subsurface seismic data. A total of 16 holes were drilled. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes (U1415J and U1415P) and five single-bit holes (U1415E and U1415G-U1415I). Despite deep water depths and challenging drilling conditions, reasonable recovery for hard rock expeditions (15{\%}-30{\%}) was achieved at three 35-110 m deep holes (U1415I, U1415J, and U1415P). The other holes occupied during this expedition included two failed attempts to establish reentry capability (Holes U1415K and U1415M) and six jet-in tests to assess sediment thickness (Holes U1415A-U1415D, U1415F, and U1415L). Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered at Site U1415, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbro, and gabbronorite. These rocks exhibit cumulate textures similar to those found in layered basic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes. All lithologies are primitive, with Mg# between 0.76 and 0.89, falling within the global range of primitive oceanic gabbros. Spectacular modal and/or grain size layering was prevalent in >50{\%} of the recovered core, displaying either simple or diffuse boundaries. Magmatic foliation largely defined by the shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase and olivine is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in the troctolite series and largely absent in the multitextured lay-ered series. The abundance of orthopyroxene in these primitive rocks was unexpected and deviates from the standard model for mid-ocean-ridge basalt crystallization. Pres-ervation of delicate skeletal olivine grains suggests that at least part of the recovered section of the lower crust was not subjected to significant hypersolidus or subsolidus strain. The metamorphic mineral assemblages record the cooling of primitive gabbroic lithologies from EPR magmatic conditions (>1000°C) to zeolite facies conditions (2 km beneath the sheeted dike-plutonic transition and thus represents the lower half to a third of the EPR plutonic crust. The orientation of the magmatic fabrics and magnetic inclinations of the core suggest that Site U1415 is composed of a series of 30-65 m thick blocks that likely formed by mass wasting. Sampling three or four blocks of relatively fresh rocks proved advantageous, as it facilitated observations of two distinct types of layering and troctolite units with varying grain size, lithologic associations, and textures. The mineralogical and textural relationships show that in several respects the Oman ophiolite is not the ideal model for fast-spreading ocean crust and call into question some aspects of both of the end-member accretion models that were to be tested. The results of the IODP Hess Deep Expedition 345 provide a reference section for primitive fast-spreading lower crust that did not exist before. This highlights the necessity of ocean drilling to address questions related to the origin and evolution of the lower ocean crust.",
author = "Gillis, {Kathryn M.} and Snow, {Jonathan E.} and Adam Klaus and Gilles Guerin and Natsue Abe and Norikatsu Akizawa and Georges Ceuleneer and Cheadle, {Michael J.} and {De BritoAdri{\~a}o}, {\'A}lden and Kathrin Faak and Falloon, {Trevor J.} and Friedman, {Sarah A.} and Godard, {Marguerite M.} and Yumiko Harigane and Horst, {Andrew J.} and Takashi Hoshide and Benoit Ildefonse and Jean, {Marlon M.} and John, {Barbara E.} and Koepke, {Juergen H.} and Sumiaki Machi and Jinichiro Maeda and Marks, {Naomi E.} and McCaig, {Andrew M.} and Romain Meyer and Antony Morris and Toshio Nozaka and Marie Python and Abhishek Saha and Wintsch, {Robert P.} and Steve Breadley and Wayne Malone and Berenguer, {Jean Luc} and Susan Gebbels and Nicole Kurtz and Michael Bertoli and Lisa Brandt and Kristin Bronk and Timothy Bronk and Chad Broyles and William Crawford and Lisa Crowder and David Fackler and Emily Fisher and Tim Fulton and Clayton Furman and Randy Gjesvold and Thomas Gorgas and Kevin Grigar and Margaret Hastedt and Michael Hodge and Dwight Hornbacher and William Mills and Michael Storms and Peter, {Cruz St} and Andrew Trefethen and {Van Rensburg}, Garrick",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
language = "English",
pages = "1--89",
journal = "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program: Preliminary Reports",
issn = "1932-9423",
publisher = "IODP-MI",
number = "345",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Hess deep plutonic crust

T2 - Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge: New drilling at Hess Deep

AU - Gillis, Kathryn M.

AU - Snow, Jonathan E.

AU - Klaus, Adam

AU - Guerin, Gilles

AU - Abe, Natsue

AU - Akizawa, Norikatsu

AU - Ceuleneer, Georges

AU - Cheadle, Michael J.

AU - De BritoAdrião, Álden

AU - Faak, Kathrin

AU - Falloon, Trevor J.

AU - Friedman, Sarah A.

AU - Godard, Marguerite M.

AU - Harigane, Yumiko

AU - Horst, Andrew J.

AU - Hoshide, Takashi

AU - Ildefonse, Benoit

AU - Jean, Marlon M.

AU - John, Barbara E.

AU - Koepke, Juergen H.

AU - Machi, Sumiaki

AU - Maeda, Jinichiro

AU - Marks, Naomi E.

AU - McCaig, Andrew M.

AU - Meyer, Romain

AU - Morris, Antony

AU - Nozaka, Toshio

AU - Python, Marie

AU - Saha, Abhishek

AU - Wintsch, Robert P.

AU - Breadley, Steve

AU - Malone, Wayne

AU - Berenguer, Jean Luc

AU - Gebbels, Susan

AU - Kurtz, Nicole

AU - Bertoli, Michael

AU - Brandt, Lisa

AU - Bronk, Kristin

AU - Bronk, Timothy

AU - Broyles, Chad

AU - Crawford, William

AU - Crowder, Lisa

AU - Fackler, David

AU - Fisher, Emily

AU - Fulton, Tim

AU - Furman, Clayton

AU - Gjesvold, Randy

AU - Gorgas, Thomas

AU - Grigar, Kevin

AU - Hastedt, Margaret

AU - Hodge, Michael

AU - Hornbacher, Dwight

AU - Mills, William

AU - Storms, Michael

AU - Peter, Cruz St

AU - Trefethen, Andrew

AU - Van Rensburg, Garrick

PY - 2014/1

Y1 - 2014/1

N2 - Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures. Site U1415 is located along the southern slope of an intrarift ridge within the Hess Deep Rift between 4675 and 4850 water depths. Specific hole locations were selected in the general area of the proposed drill sites (HD-01B-HD-03B) using a combination of geomorphology, seafloor observations, and shallow subsurface seismic data. A total of 16 holes were drilled. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes (U1415J and U1415P) and five single-bit holes (U1415E and U1415G-U1415I). Despite deep water depths and challenging drilling conditions, reasonable recovery for hard rock expeditions (15%-30%) was achieved at three 35-110 m deep holes (U1415I, U1415J, and U1415P). The other holes occupied during this expedition included two failed attempts to establish reentry capability (Holes U1415K and U1415M) and six jet-in tests to assess sediment thickness (Holes U1415A-U1415D, U1415F, and U1415L). Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered at Site U1415, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbro, and gabbronorite. These rocks exhibit cumulate textures similar to those found in layered basic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes. All lithologies are primitive, with Mg# between 0.76 and 0.89, falling within the global range of primitive oceanic gabbros. Spectacular modal and/or grain size layering was prevalent in >50% of the recovered core, displaying either simple or diffuse boundaries. Magmatic foliation largely defined by the shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase and olivine is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in the troctolite series and largely absent in the multitextured lay-ered series. The abundance of orthopyroxene in these primitive rocks was unexpected and deviates from the standard model for mid-ocean-ridge basalt crystallization. Pres-ervation of delicate skeletal olivine grains suggests that at least part of the recovered section of the lower crust was not subjected to significant hypersolidus or subsolidus strain. The metamorphic mineral assemblages record the cooling of primitive gabbroic lithologies from EPR magmatic conditions (>1000°C) to zeolite facies conditions (2 km beneath the sheeted dike-plutonic transition and thus represents the lower half to a third of the EPR plutonic crust. The orientation of the magmatic fabrics and magnetic inclinations of the core suggest that Site U1415 is composed of a series of 30-65 m thick blocks that likely formed by mass wasting. Sampling three or four blocks of relatively fresh rocks proved advantageous, as it facilitated observations of two distinct types of layering and troctolite units with varying grain size, lithologic associations, and textures. The mineralogical and textural relationships show that in several respects the Oman ophiolite is not the ideal model for fast-spreading ocean crust and call into question some aspects of both of the end-member accretion models that were to be tested. The results of the IODP Hess Deep Expedition 345 provide a reference section for primitive fast-spreading lower crust that did not exist before. This highlights the necessity of ocean drilling to address questions related to the origin and evolution of the lower ocean crust.

AB - Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures. Site U1415 is located along the southern slope of an intrarift ridge within the Hess Deep Rift between 4675 and 4850 water depths. Specific hole locations were selected in the general area of the proposed drill sites (HD-01B-HD-03B) using a combination of geomorphology, seafloor observations, and shallow subsurface seismic data. A total of 16 holes were drilled. The primary science results were obtained from coring of two ~110 m deep reentry holes (U1415J and U1415P) and five single-bit holes (U1415E and U1415G-U1415I). Despite deep water depths and challenging drilling conditions, reasonable recovery for hard rock expeditions (15%-30%) was achieved at three 35-110 m deep holes (U1415I, U1415J, and U1415P). The other holes occupied during this expedition included two failed attempts to establish reentry capability (Holes U1415K and U1415M) and six jet-in tests to assess sediment thickness (Holes U1415A-U1415D, U1415F, and U1415L). Olivine gabbro and troctolite are the dominant plutonic rock types recovered at Site U1415, with minor gabbro, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite, clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing gabbro, and gabbronorite. These rocks exhibit cumulate textures similar to those found in layered basic intrusions and some ophiolite complexes. All lithologies are primitive, with Mg# between 0.76 and 0.89, falling within the global range of primitive oceanic gabbros. Spectacular modal and/or grain size layering was prevalent in >50% of the recovered core, displaying either simple or diffuse boundaries. Magmatic foliation largely defined by the shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase and olivine is moderate to strong in intervals with simple modal layering but weak to absent in the troctolite series and largely absent in the multitextured lay-ered series. The abundance of orthopyroxene in these primitive rocks was unexpected and deviates from the standard model for mid-ocean-ridge basalt crystallization. Pres-ervation of delicate skeletal olivine grains suggests that at least part of the recovered section of the lower crust was not subjected to significant hypersolidus or subsolidus strain. The metamorphic mineral assemblages record the cooling of primitive gabbroic lithologies from EPR magmatic conditions (>1000°C) to zeolite facies conditions (2 km beneath the sheeted dike-plutonic transition and thus represents the lower half to a third of the EPR plutonic crust. The orientation of the magmatic fabrics and magnetic inclinations of the core suggest that Site U1415 is composed of a series of 30-65 m thick blocks that likely formed by mass wasting. Sampling three or four blocks of relatively fresh rocks proved advantageous, as it facilitated observations of two distinct types of layering and troctolite units with varying grain size, lithologic associations, and textures. The mineralogical and textural relationships show that in several respects the Oman ophiolite is not the ideal model for fast-spreading ocean crust and call into question some aspects of both of the end-member accretion models that were to be tested. The results of the IODP Hess Deep Expedition 345 provide a reference section for primitive fast-spreading lower crust that did not exist before. This highlights the necessity of ocean drilling to address questions related to the origin and evolution of the lower ocean crust.

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