Harnessing host ROS-generating machinery for the robust genome replication of a plant RNA virus

Kiwamu Hyodo, Kenji Hashimoto, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Tetsuro Okuno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


As sessile organisms, plants have to accommodate to rapid changes in their surrounding environment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules to transduce biotic and abiotic stimuli into plant stress adaptations. It is established that a respiratory burst oxidase homolog B of Nicotiana benthamiana (NbRBOHB) produces ROS in response to microbe-associated molecular patterns to inhibit pathogen infection. Plant viruses are also known as causative agents of ROS induction in infected plants; however, the function of ROS in plant-virus interactions remains obscure. Here, we show that the replication of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a plant positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] virus, requires NbRBOHB-mediated ROS production. The RCNMV replication protein p27 plays a pivotal role in this process, redirecting the subcellular localization of NbRBOHB and a subgroup II calcium-dependent protein kinase of N. benthamiana (NbCDPKiso2) from the plasma membrane to the p27-containing intracellular aggregate structures. p27 also induces an intracellular ROS burst in an RBOH-dependent manner. NbCDPKiso2 was shown to be an activator of the p27-triggered ROS accumulations and to be required for RCNMV replication. Importantly, this RBOH-derived ROS is essential for robust viral RNA replication. The need for RBOHderived ROS was demonstrated for the replication of another (+) RNA virus, brome mosaic virus, suggesting that this characteristic is true for plant (+)RNA viruses. Collectively, our findings revealed a hitherto unknown viral strategy whereby the host ROS-generating machinery is diverted for robust viral RNA replication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E1282-E1290
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Feb 14 2017


  • Calcium-dependent protein kinase
  • Positive-strand RNA virus
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Respiratory burst oxidase homolog
  • Viral RNA replication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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