Guardians of the actin monomer

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Actin is a universal force provider in eukaryotic cells. Biological processes harness the pressure generated from actin polymerization through dictating the time, place and direction of filament growth. As such, polymerization is initiated and maintained via tightly controlled filament nucleation and elongation machineries. Biological systems integrate force into their activities through recruiting and activating these machineries. In order that actin function as a common force generating polymerization motor, cells must maintain a pool of active, polymerization-ready monomeric actin, and minimize extemporaneous polymerization. Maintenance of the active monomeric actin pool requires the recycling of actin filaments, through depolymerization, nucleotide exchange and reloading of the polymerization machineries, while the levels of monomers are constantly monitored and supplemented, when needed, via the access of a reserve pool of monomers and through gene expression. Throughout its monomeric life, actin needs to be protected against gratuitous nucleation events. Here, we review the proteins that act as custodians of monomeric actin. We estimate their levels on a tissue scale, and calculate the implied concentrations of each actin complex based on reported binding affinities. These estimations predict that monomeric actin is rarely, if ever, alone. Thus, the guardians keep the volatility of actin in check, so that its explosive power is only released in the controlled environments of the nucleation and polymerization machineries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)316-332
Number of pages17
JournalEuropean Journal of Cell Biology
Volume92
Issue number10-11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Actins
Polymerization
Biological Phenomena
Controlled Environment
Volatilization
Eukaryotic Cells
Actin Cytoskeleton
Nucleotides
Maintenance
Gene Expression
Pressure
Growth

Keywords

  • Abundance
  • Actin-binding protein
  • Binding affinity
  • Complex
  • Monomeric actin
  • Nucleotide exchange

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Guardians of the actin monomer. / Xue, Bo; Robinson, Robert C.

In: European Journal of Cell Biology, Vol. 92, No. 10-11, 01.10.2013, p. 316-332.

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

Xue, Bo ; Robinson, Robert C. / Guardians of the actin monomer. In: European Journal of Cell Biology. 2013 ; Vol. 92, No. 10-11. pp. 316-332.
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