Tuberculosis is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which primarily infects macrophages and establishes intracellular parasitism. A mycobacterial virulence factor Zn2+ metalloprotease 1 (Zmp1) is known to suppress interleukin (IL)-1β production by inhibiting caspase-1 resulting in phagosome maturation arrest. However, the molecular mechanism of caspase-1 inhibition by Zmp1 is still elusive. Here, we identified GRIM-19 (also known as NDUFA13), an essential subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, as a novel Zmp1-binding protein. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated GRIM-19 knockout murine macrophage cell line J774.1 and found that GRIM-19 is essential for IL-1β production during mycobacterial infection as well as in response to NLRP3 inflammasome-activating stimuli such as extracellular ATP or nigericin. We also found that GRIM-19 is required for the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and NLRP3-dependent activation of caspase-1. Loss of GRIM-19 or forced expression of Zmp1 resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Our study revealed a previously unrecognized role of GRIM-19 as an essential regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome and a molecular mechanism underlying Zmp1-mediated suppression of IL-1β production during mycobacterial infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology