Objectives: To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of green tea catechins in immortalized human gingival epithelial cells (Ca9-22) stimulated with Porphyromonas gulae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: Ca9-22 cells were incubated with P. gulae LPS (10 μg/ml) with or without green tea catechins, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epicatechin (EC) (each at 50 μM), for 6 or 24 h. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-ɑ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-8. Furthermore, the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 was examined using real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, and phosphorylation of the p38 and ERK1/2 was examined using western blotting analysis. Results: At the mRNA and protein levels, EGCg, EGC, ECG, and EC were found to significantly inhibit COX2, TNF-ɑ, IL-6, and IL-8. Furthermore, the levels of ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation induced by P. gulae LPS were decreased following the addition of each of the catechins, as well as TLR2 and 4 mRNA and protein. Conclusions: These findings indicate that green tea catechins are potent inhibitors of inﬂammatory responses induced by P. gulae LPS, and may also be useful for prevention and/or attenuation of periodontitis.
- Human epithelial cell
- Porphyromonas gulae
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)