Gramine increase associated with rapid and transient systemic resistance in barley seedlings induced by mechanical and biological stresses

Hironobu Matsuo, Kumiko Taniguchi, Tadahiro Hiramoto, Tetsuji Yamada, Yuki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Tomonori Shiraishi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is one of the intriguing issues for studying the mechanism in signal transduction system in a whole plant. We found that SAR and increase of an antifungal compound were induced rapidly and transiently in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Goseshikoku) by mechanical and biological stresses. One of the major antifungal compounds was identified as an indole alkaloid, gramine (N,N-dimethyl-3-aminomethylindole), by mass spectrum and NMR analyses. Gramine is well known as a constitutive compound of barley, but it increased significantly in the primary and secondary leaves of barley seedlings within 12 h after pruning or inoculating with the powdery mildew fungi of barley (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and wheat (B. graminis f.sp. tritici). However, in the leaf detached from unwounded seedlings or in the leaf inoculated with the barley powdery mildew fungus, gramine did not increase at all. In the water droplets contacted with barley leaves, the amount of leaked gramine increased dependently upon the time after the seedling was injured mechanically. We also found a tight correlation between gramine increase and enhancement of resistance to the barley powdery mildew fungus in barley leaves treated with an endogenous elicitor. Furthermore, such a systemic resistance was not observed in a barley cultivar Morex that lacks the biosynthetic pathway of gramine. From these results, we conclude that gramine is the excellent marker in rapid and transient systemic acquired resistance in barley.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1103-1111
Number of pages9
JournalPlant and Cell Physiology
Volume42
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2001

Keywords

  • Barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis hordei)
  • Endogenous elicitor
  • Gramine
  • Hordeum vulgare L.
  • Mechanical injury
  • Systemic acquired resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology

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