Glycine betaine in beer as an antimutagenic substance against 2-chloro-4-methylthiobutanoic acid, the sanma-fish mutagen

Sachiko Kimura, Hikoya Hayatsu, Sakae Arimoto

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24 Citations (Scopus)


Beer can inhibit the mutagenicity of the sanma-fish mutagen, 2-chloro-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (CMBA) in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA1535. The antimutagenic component was isolated from beer and identified as glycine betaine, a compound known to be distributed widely in plants and animals including humans. Beer also contains components that interfere the antimutagenic action of glycine betaine. Glycine betaine seems to antagonize CMBA in a specific manner, since several other direct-acting mutagens tested were not subject to inhibition by glycine betaine. CMBA was stable in the presence of glycine betaine under neutral conditions. Since a treatment of Salmonella with glycine betaine before the bacteria was exposed to CMBA resulted in inhibition of the mutagenesis, the antimutagenic action of glycine betaine may be taking place inside the cells. These observations suggest that the mutagenic action of CMBA may be modified by the presence of both extracellular and intracellular glycine betaine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-276
Number of pages10
JournalMutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 19 1999



  • 2-Chloro-4-methylthiobutanoic acid
  • Antimutagen
  • Beer
  • Glycine betaine
  • Sanma-fish mutagen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Genetics

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