Glutamate transporters as drug targets

Eiichi Hinoi, Takeshi Takarada, Yuriko Tsuchihashi, Yukio Yoneda

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The L-glutamate (Glu) has been hypothesized as an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system after successful cloning and identification of a number of genes encoding signaling machineries required for the neurocrine at synapses in the brain. These include excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) for signal termination and vesicular Glu transporters (VGLUTs) for signal output through exocytotic release, in addition to Glu receptors (GluRs) for signal input. These Glu signaling molecules not only play key roles in mechanisms associated with synaptic plasticity such as learning and memory, but also participate in the etiology and pathology of different neuropsychiatric disorders and neuronal cell death seen in various neurodegenerative diseases. Of the aforementioned Glu signaling molecules, EAATs are essential for the termination of signal transmission mediated by Glu as well as for the prevention of neurotoxicity mediated by this endogenous excitotoxin, while VGLUTs are crucial for the storage of Glu in synaptic vesicles to suffice for the definition of a glutamatergic phenotype. Many early desperate efforts were devoted to the search and development of novel compounds with a therapeutic window toward GluRs, while relatively little attention was paid to either EAATs or VGLUTs in this aspect. In this review, therefore, we will summarize the classification and functionality of EAATs and VGLUTs with a focus on their possibilities as potential therapeutic targets for different neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders related to malfunction of Glu signaling in human beings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-220
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Drug Targets: CNS and Neurological Disorders
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2005
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Glutamate
  • Glutamate receptor
  • Glutamate transporter
  • Neurodegenerative disorder
  • Neuropsychiatric disorder
  • Neurotransmitter
  • Vesicular glutamate transporter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Neuroscience(all)

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