Global UHP metamorphism and continental subduction/collision: The Himalayan model

J. G. Liou, T. Tsujimori, R. Y. Zhang, I. Katayama, S. Maruyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

253 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Continental crust (density ∼2.8 g·cm-3) resists subduction into the earth's mantle (∼3.3 g·cm-3) because of buoyancy. However, more than 20 recognized ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes have been documented; these occurrences demonstrate that not only is continental crust subducted to depths as great as 150 km, but also that some supracrustal rocks were then exhumed to the earth's surface. UHP terranes are composed of mainly supracrustal rocks that contain minor amounts of minerals such as coesite or diamond, indicative P > 2.5 GPa. In general, quartzofeldspathic units are thoroughly back reacted, and only mafic eclogite lenses and boudins retain scattered UHP phases. These index minerals are restricted to micron-scale inclusions in chemically and mechanically resistant zircon, garnet, and a few other strong container minerals, and are difficult to identify by conventional petrologic studies. The continental rocks were subjected to UHP metamorphism at T ranging from ∼700 to 950°C and P > 2.8 to 5.0 GPa, corresponding to depths of ∼ 100 to 150 km. These UHP units were subsequently exhumed to crustal depths and subjected to intense hydration and amphibolite-facies overprint. Widespread Barrovian-type metamorphism in many collisional orogens may mask an earlier, higher-pressure metamorphic history. We suspect that coesite-bearing UHP rocks were once generated in the majority of exhumed collisional orogens. The recent finding of coesite inclusions in rare Himalayan eclogites and country rock gneisses is a typical example. We use the Himalayan model to illustrate UHP metamorphism and subduction of continental crustal rocks to mantle depths and later Barrovian-type overprint during exhumation. Himalayan UHP eclogites and adjacent gneisses were formed at mantle depths > 100 km at 46 to 52 Ma. These rocks were exhumed to crustal depths and subjected to Barrovian amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism; associated magmatism occurred at 30 to 15 Ma. The Himalayan metamorphic belt was domally uplifted and the mountain-building process initiated since 11 Ma, when underthrusting of the Indian tectosphere beneath the Lesser Himalayas occurred.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-27
Number of pages27
JournalInternational Geology Review
Volume46
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

ultrahigh pressure metamorphism
subduction
collision
coesite
supracrustal rock
mantle
rock
continental crust
terrane
metamorphism
mineral
country rock
granulite facies
eclogite
amphibolite
amphibolite facies
hydration
exhumation
diamond
buoyancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

Cite this

Liou, J. G., Tsujimori, T., Zhang, R. Y., Katayama, I., & Maruyama, S. (2004). Global UHP metamorphism and continental subduction/collision: The Himalayan model. International Geology Review, 46(1), 1-27.

Global UHP metamorphism and continental subduction/collision : The Himalayan model. / Liou, J. G.; Tsujimori, T.; Zhang, R. Y.; Katayama, I.; Maruyama, S.

In: International Geology Review, Vol. 46, No. 1, 01.2004, p. 1-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liou, JG, Tsujimori, T, Zhang, RY, Katayama, I & Maruyama, S 2004, 'Global UHP metamorphism and continental subduction/collision: The Himalayan model', International Geology Review, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 1-27.
Liou JG, Tsujimori T, Zhang RY, Katayama I, Maruyama S. Global UHP metamorphism and continental subduction/collision: The Himalayan model. International Geology Review. 2004 Jan;46(1):1-27.
Liou, J. G. ; Tsujimori, T. ; Zhang, R. Y. ; Katayama, I. ; Maruyama, S. / Global UHP metamorphism and continental subduction/collision : The Himalayan model. In: International Geology Review. 2004 ; Vol. 46, No. 1. pp. 1-27.
@article{d3161dba85254c9fb734b4262a810a25,
title = "Global UHP metamorphism and continental subduction/collision: The Himalayan model",
abstract = "Continental crust (density ∼2.8 g·cm-3) resists subduction into the earth's mantle (∼3.3 g·cm-3) because of buoyancy. However, more than 20 recognized ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes have been documented; these occurrences demonstrate that not only is continental crust subducted to depths as great as 150 km, but also that some supracrustal rocks were then exhumed to the earth's surface. UHP terranes are composed of mainly supracrustal rocks that contain minor amounts of minerals such as coesite or diamond, indicative P > 2.5 GPa. In general, quartzofeldspathic units are thoroughly back reacted, and only mafic eclogite lenses and boudins retain scattered UHP phases. These index minerals are restricted to micron-scale inclusions in chemically and mechanically resistant zircon, garnet, and a few other strong container minerals, and are difficult to identify by conventional petrologic studies. The continental rocks were subjected to UHP metamorphism at T ranging from ∼700 to 950°C and P > 2.8 to 5.0 GPa, corresponding to depths of ∼ 100 to 150 km. These UHP units were subsequently exhumed to crustal depths and subjected to intense hydration and amphibolite-facies overprint. Widespread Barrovian-type metamorphism in many collisional orogens may mask an earlier, higher-pressure metamorphic history. We suspect that coesite-bearing UHP rocks were once generated in the majority of exhumed collisional orogens. The recent finding of coesite inclusions in rare Himalayan eclogites and country rock gneisses is a typical example. We use the Himalayan model to illustrate UHP metamorphism and subduction of continental crustal rocks to mantle depths and later Barrovian-type overprint during exhumation. Himalayan UHP eclogites and adjacent gneisses were formed at mantle depths > 100 km at 46 to 52 Ma. These rocks were exhumed to crustal depths and subjected to Barrovian amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism; associated magmatism occurred at 30 to 15 Ma. The Himalayan metamorphic belt was domally uplifted and the mountain-building process initiated since 11 Ma, when underthrusting of the Indian tectosphere beneath the Lesser Himalayas occurred.",
author = "Liou, {J. G.} and T. Tsujimori and Zhang, {R. Y.} and I. Katayama and S. Maruyama",
year = "2004",
month = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "46",
pages = "1--27",
journal = "International Geology Review",
issn = "0020-6814",
publisher = "Bellwether Publishing, Ltd.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global UHP metamorphism and continental subduction/collision

T2 - The Himalayan model

AU - Liou, J. G.

AU - Tsujimori, T.

AU - Zhang, R. Y.

AU - Katayama, I.

AU - Maruyama, S.

PY - 2004/1

Y1 - 2004/1

N2 - Continental crust (density ∼2.8 g·cm-3) resists subduction into the earth's mantle (∼3.3 g·cm-3) because of buoyancy. However, more than 20 recognized ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes have been documented; these occurrences demonstrate that not only is continental crust subducted to depths as great as 150 km, but also that some supracrustal rocks were then exhumed to the earth's surface. UHP terranes are composed of mainly supracrustal rocks that contain minor amounts of minerals such as coesite or diamond, indicative P > 2.5 GPa. In general, quartzofeldspathic units are thoroughly back reacted, and only mafic eclogite lenses and boudins retain scattered UHP phases. These index minerals are restricted to micron-scale inclusions in chemically and mechanically resistant zircon, garnet, and a few other strong container minerals, and are difficult to identify by conventional petrologic studies. The continental rocks were subjected to UHP metamorphism at T ranging from ∼700 to 950°C and P > 2.8 to 5.0 GPa, corresponding to depths of ∼ 100 to 150 km. These UHP units were subsequently exhumed to crustal depths and subjected to intense hydration and amphibolite-facies overprint. Widespread Barrovian-type metamorphism in many collisional orogens may mask an earlier, higher-pressure metamorphic history. We suspect that coesite-bearing UHP rocks were once generated in the majority of exhumed collisional orogens. The recent finding of coesite inclusions in rare Himalayan eclogites and country rock gneisses is a typical example. We use the Himalayan model to illustrate UHP metamorphism and subduction of continental crustal rocks to mantle depths and later Barrovian-type overprint during exhumation. Himalayan UHP eclogites and adjacent gneisses were formed at mantle depths > 100 km at 46 to 52 Ma. These rocks were exhumed to crustal depths and subjected to Barrovian amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism; associated magmatism occurred at 30 to 15 Ma. The Himalayan metamorphic belt was domally uplifted and the mountain-building process initiated since 11 Ma, when underthrusting of the Indian tectosphere beneath the Lesser Himalayas occurred.

AB - Continental crust (density ∼2.8 g·cm-3) resists subduction into the earth's mantle (∼3.3 g·cm-3) because of buoyancy. However, more than 20 recognized ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes have been documented; these occurrences demonstrate that not only is continental crust subducted to depths as great as 150 km, but also that some supracrustal rocks were then exhumed to the earth's surface. UHP terranes are composed of mainly supracrustal rocks that contain minor amounts of minerals such as coesite or diamond, indicative P > 2.5 GPa. In general, quartzofeldspathic units are thoroughly back reacted, and only mafic eclogite lenses and boudins retain scattered UHP phases. These index minerals are restricted to micron-scale inclusions in chemically and mechanically resistant zircon, garnet, and a few other strong container minerals, and are difficult to identify by conventional petrologic studies. The continental rocks were subjected to UHP metamorphism at T ranging from ∼700 to 950°C and P > 2.8 to 5.0 GPa, corresponding to depths of ∼ 100 to 150 km. These UHP units were subsequently exhumed to crustal depths and subjected to intense hydration and amphibolite-facies overprint. Widespread Barrovian-type metamorphism in many collisional orogens may mask an earlier, higher-pressure metamorphic history. We suspect that coesite-bearing UHP rocks were once generated in the majority of exhumed collisional orogens. The recent finding of coesite inclusions in rare Himalayan eclogites and country rock gneisses is a typical example. We use the Himalayan model to illustrate UHP metamorphism and subduction of continental crustal rocks to mantle depths and later Barrovian-type overprint during exhumation. Himalayan UHP eclogites and adjacent gneisses were formed at mantle depths > 100 km at 46 to 52 Ma. These rocks were exhumed to crustal depths and subjected to Barrovian amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism; associated magmatism occurred at 30 to 15 Ma. The Himalayan metamorphic belt was domally uplifted and the mountain-building process initiated since 11 Ma, when underthrusting of the Indian tectosphere beneath the Lesser Himalayas occurred.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1242299539&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1242299539&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:1242299539

VL - 46

SP - 1

EP - 27

JO - International Geology Review

JF - International Geology Review

SN - 0020-6814

IS - 1

ER -