Glial Cells as Possible Targets of Neuroprotection through Neurotrophic and Antioxidative Molecules in the Central and Enteric Nervous Systems in Parkinson’s Disease

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. The loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons produces its characteristic motor symptoms, but PD patients also have non-motor symptoms such as constipation and orthostatic hypotension. The pathological hallmark of PD is the presence of a-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies and neurites in the brain. However, the PD pathology is observed in not only the central nervous system (CNS) but also in parts of the peripheral nervous system such as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Since constipation is a typical prodromal non-motor symptom in PD, often preceding motor symptoms by 10–20 years, it has been hypothesized that PD pathology propagates from the ENS to the CNS via the vagal nerve. Discovery of pharmacological and other methods to halt this progression of neurodegeneration in PD has the potential to improve millions of lives. Astrocytes protect neurons in the CNS by secretion of neurotrophic and antioxidative factors. Similarly, astrocyte-like enteric glial cells (EGCs) are known to secrete neuroprotective factors in the ENS. In this article, we summarize the neuroprotective function of astrocytes and EGCs and discuss therapeutic strategies for the prevention of neurodegeneration in PD targeting neurotrophic and antioxidative molecules in glial cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)549-556
Number of pages8
JournalActa medica Okayama
Volume75
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • antioxidative molecule
  • astrocyte
  • enteric glial cell
  • neurotrophic factor
  • Parkinson’s disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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