Genomics of Clostridium botulinum group III strains

Yoshihiko Sakaguchi, Tomonori Suzuki, Yumiko Yamamoto, Atsushi Nishikawa, Keiji Oguma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


In Clostridium botulinum, the characteristics of type C and D strains are quite different from other types, and they are classified as group III. They produce C2 binary toxin and C3 exoenzyme in addition to type C and D neurotoxins. Two different phages and many plasmids are identified in the organisms. The genes of neurotoxin and C3 exoenzyme are converted from toxigenic strains to non-toxigenic strains by the specific bacteriophages (phages), whereas, the C2 toxin gene is carried by large or small plasmids. Classification of type C and D strains has been in confusion because 1) antigenicity of type C and D neurotoxins is complex, 2) the cells produce two types of toxins, neurotoxin and C2 toxin, and 3) some non-toxigenic strains can be converted to produce C or D neurotoxin by the infection with phages. Until now, entire nucleotide sequences of cell chromosomes, phages, and plasmids have been determined. Since both genetic and protein-chemical analyses have been clarifying the above confusions, these data are reviewed historically.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)318-325
Number of pages8
JournalResearch in Microbiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2015


  • C2 toxin
  • C3 exoenzyme
  • Clostridium botulinum group III
  • Neurotoxin
  • Phage conversion
  • Progenitor toxin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology


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