Genetic diversity and epizootiology of Chlamydophila psittaci prevalent among the captive and feral avian species based on VD2 region of ompA gene

Rajesh Chahota, Hirohito Ogawa, Yoko Mitsuhashi, Kenji Ohya, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Hideto Fukushi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)


To study genetic diversity and occurrence of Chlamydophila psittaci, a total of 1,147 samples from 11 avian orders including 53 genera and 113 species of feral and captive birds were examined using ompA gene based nested PCR. Three types of chlamydiae: C. psittaci (94.12%), C. abortus (4.41%) and unknown Chlamydophila sp. (1.47%) were identified among 68 (5.93%) positive samples (Psittaciformes-59, Ciconiiformes-8 and Passeriformes-1). Based on nucleotide sequence variations in the VD2 region of ompA gene, all 64 detected C. psittaci strains were grouped into 4 genetic clusters. Clusters I, II, III and IV were detected from 57.35%, 19.12%, 10.29% and 7.35% samples respectively. A single strain of unknown Chlamydophila sp. was found phylogenetically intermediate between Chlamydophila species infecting avian and mammalian hosts. Among Psittaciformes, 28 out of 81 tested species including 10 species previously unreported were found to be chlamydiae positive. Chlamydiosis was detected among 8.97% sick and 48.39% dead birds as well 4.43% clinically normal birds. Therefore, it was observed that though various genetically diverse chlamydiae may cause avian chlamydiosis, only a few C. psittaci strains are highly prevalent and frequently associated with clinical/subclinical infections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)663-678
Number of pages16
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2006
Externally publishedYes



  • Birds
  • Chlamydophila psittaci
  • Epizootiology
  • Genetic diversity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Virology

Cite this