Although spikelet-related traits such as size of anther, spikelet, style, and stigma are associated with sexual reproduction in grasses, no QTLs have been reported in sorghum. Additionally, there are only a few reports on sorghum QTLs related to grain size, such as grain length, width, and thickness. In this study, we performed QTL analyses of nine spikelet-related traits (length of sessile spikelet, pedicellate spikelet, pedicel, anther, style, and stigma; width of sessile spikelet and stigma; and stigma pigmentation) and six grain-related traits (length, width, thickness, length/width ratio, length/thickness ratio, and width/thickness ratio) using sorghum recombinant inbred lines. We identified 36 and 7 QTLs for spikelet-related traits and grain-related traits, respectively, and found that most sorghum spikelet organ length- and width-related traits were partially controlled by the dwarf genes Dw1 and Dw3. Conversely, we found that these Dw genes were not strongly involved in the regulation of grain size. The QTLs identified in this study aid in understanding the genetic basis of spikelet- and grain-related traits in sorghum.
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