Gelsolin: The tail of a molecular gymnast

Shalini Nag, Mårten Larsson, Robert C. Robinson, Leslie D. Burtnick

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

90 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gelsolin superfamily members are Ca2+-dependent, multidomain regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Calcium binding activates gelsolin by inducing molecular gymnastics (large-scale conformational changes) that expose actin interaction surfaces by releasing a series of latches. A specialized tail latch has distinguished gelsolin within the superfamily. Active gelsolin exhibits actin filament severing and capping, and actin monomer sequestering activities. Here, we analyze a combination of sequence, structural, biophysical and biochemical data to assess whether the molecular plasticity, regulation and actin-related properties of gelsolin are also present in other superfamily members. We conclude that all members of the superfamily will be able to transition between a compact conformation and a more open form, and that most of these open forms will interact with actin. Supervillin, which lacks the severing domain 1 and the F-actin binding-site on domain 2, is the clear exception. Eight calcium-binding sites are absolutely conserved in gelsolin, adseverin, advillin and villin, and compromised to increasing degrees in CapG, villin-like protein, supervillin and flightless I. Advillin, villin and supervillin each contain a potential tail latch, which is absent from CapG, adseverin and flightless I, and ambiguous in villin-like protein. Thus, calcium regulation will vary across the superfamily. Potential novel isoforms of the superfamily suggest complex regulation at the gene, transcript and protein levels. We review animal, clinical and cellular data that illuminate how the regulation of molecular flexibility in gelsolin-like proteins permits cells to exploit the force generated from actin polymerization to drive processes such as cell movement in health and disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)360-384
Number of pages25
JournalCytoskeleton
Volume70
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Gelsolin
Actins
Calcium
Actin Cytoskeleton
Binding Sites
Gymnastics
Proteins
Polymerization
Cell Movement
Protein Isoforms
villin
Health

Keywords

  • Adseverin
  • CapG
  • Flightless
  • Gelsolin
  • Villin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Nag, S., Larsson, M., Robinson, R. C., & Burtnick, L. D. (2013). Gelsolin: The tail of a molecular gymnast. Cytoskeleton, 70(7), 360-384. https://doi.org/10.1002/cm.21117

Gelsolin : The tail of a molecular gymnast. / Nag, Shalini; Larsson, Mårten; Robinson, Robert C.; Burtnick, Leslie D.

In: Cytoskeleton, Vol. 70, No. 7, 01.07.2013, p. 360-384.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Nag, S, Larsson, M, Robinson, RC & Burtnick, LD 2013, 'Gelsolin: The tail of a molecular gymnast', Cytoskeleton, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 360-384. https://doi.org/10.1002/cm.21117
Nag, Shalini ; Larsson, Mårten ; Robinson, Robert C. ; Burtnick, Leslie D. / Gelsolin : The tail of a molecular gymnast. In: Cytoskeleton. 2013 ; Vol. 70, No. 7. pp. 360-384.
@article{f753e52852f74e62bc25c872ca111a46,
title = "Gelsolin: The tail of a molecular gymnast",
abstract = "Gelsolin superfamily members are Ca2+-dependent, multidomain regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Calcium binding activates gelsolin by inducing molecular gymnastics (large-scale conformational changes) that expose actin interaction surfaces by releasing a series of latches. A specialized tail latch has distinguished gelsolin within the superfamily. Active gelsolin exhibits actin filament severing and capping, and actin monomer sequestering activities. Here, we analyze a combination of sequence, structural, biophysical and biochemical data to assess whether the molecular plasticity, regulation and actin-related properties of gelsolin are also present in other superfamily members. We conclude that all members of the superfamily will be able to transition between a compact conformation and a more open form, and that most of these open forms will interact with actin. Supervillin, which lacks the severing domain 1 and the F-actin binding-site on domain 2, is the clear exception. Eight calcium-binding sites are absolutely conserved in gelsolin, adseverin, advillin and villin, and compromised to increasing degrees in CapG, villin-like protein, supervillin and flightless I. Advillin, villin and supervillin each contain a potential tail latch, which is absent from CapG, adseverin and flightless I, and ambiguous in villin-like protein. Thus, calcium regulation will vary across the superfamily. Potential novel isoforms of the superfamily suggest complex regulation at the gene, transcript and protein levels. We review animal, clinical and cellular data that illuminate how the regulation of molecular flexibility in gelsolin-like proteins permits cells to exploit the force generated from actin polymerization to drive processes such as cell movement in health and disease.",
keywords = "Adseverin, CapG, Flightless, Gelsolin, Villin",
author = "Shalini Nag and M{\aa}rten Larsson and Robinson, {Robert C.} and Burtnick, {Leslie D.}",
year = "2013",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/cm.21117",
language = "English",
volume = "70",
pages = "360--384",
journal = "Cytoskeleton",
issn = "1949-3584",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gelsolin

T2 - The tail of a molecular gymnast

AU - Nag, Shalini

AU - Larsson, Mårten

AU - Robinson, Robert C.

AU - Burtnick, Leslie D.

PY - 2013/7/1

Y1 - 2013/7/1

N2 - Gelsolin superfamily members are Ca2+-dependent, multidomain regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Calcium binding activates gelsolin by inducing molecular gymnastics (large-scale conformational changes) that expose actin interaction surfaces by releasing a series of latches. A specialized tail latch has distinguished gelsolin within the superfamily. Active gelsolin exhibits actin filament severing and capping, and actin monomer sequestering activities. Here, we analyze a combination of sequence, structural, biophysical and biochemical data to assess whether the molecular plasticity, regulation and actin-related properties of gelsolin are also present in other superfamily members. We conclude that all members of the superfamily will be able to transition between a compact conformation and a more open form, and that most of these open forms will interact with actin. Supervillin, which lacks the severing domain 1 and the F-actin binding-site on domain 2, is the clear exception. Eight calcium-binding sites are absolutely conserved in gelsolin, adseverin, advillin and villin, and compromised to increasing degrees in CapG, villin-like protein, supervillin and flightless I. Advillin, villin and supervillin each contain a potential tail latch, which is absent from CapG, adseverin and flightless I, and ambiguous in villin-like protein. Thus, calcium regulation will vary across the superfamily. Potential novel isoforms of the superfamily suggest complex regulation at the gene, transcript and protein levels. We review animal, clinical and cellular data that illuminate how the regulation of molecular flexibility in gelsolin-like proteins permits cells to exploit the force generated from actin polymerization to drive processes such as cell movement in health and disease.

AB - Gelsolin superfamily members are Ca2+-dependent, multidomain regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Calcium binding activates gelsolin by inducing molecular gymnastics (large-scale conformational changes) that expose actin interaction surfaces by releasing a series of latches. A specialized tail latch has distinguished gelsolin within the superfamily. Active gelsolin exhibits actin filament severing and capping, and actin monomer sequestering activities. Here, we analyze a combination of sequence, structural, biophysical and biochemical data to assess whether the molecular plasticity, regulation and actin-related properties of gelsolin are also present in other superfamily members. We conclude that all members of the superfamily will be able to transition between a compact conformation and a more open form, and that most of these open forms will interact with actin. Supervillin, which lacks the severing domain 1 and the F-actin binding-site on domain 2, is the clear exception. Eight calcium-binding sites are absolutely conserved in gelsolin, adseverin, advillin and villin, and compromised to increasing degrees in CapG, villin-like protein, supervillin and flightless I. Advillin, villin and supervillin each contain a potential tail latch, which is absent from CapG, adseverin and flightless I, and ambiguous in villin-like protein. Thus, calcium regulation will vary across the superfamily. Potential novel isoforms of the superfamily suggest complex regulation at the gene, transcript and protein levels. We review animal, clinical and cellular data that illuminate how the regulation of molecular flexibility in gelsolin-like proteins permits cells to exploit the force generated from actin polymerization to drive processes such as cell movement in health and disease.

KW - Adseverin

KW - CapG

KW - Flightless

KW - Gelsolin

KW - Villin

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84880669031&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84880669031&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/cm.21117

DO - 10.1002/cm.21117

M3 - Review article

C2 - 23749648

AN - SCOPUS:84880669031

VL - 70

SP - 360

EP - 384

JO - Cytoskeleton

JF - Cytoskeleton

SN - 1949-3584

IS - 7

ER -