Gap between self-evaluation and actual hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers

Hideharu Hagiya, Ryosuke Takase, Yosuke Sazumi, Yoshito Nishimura, Hiroyuki Honda, Fumio Otsuka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hand hygiene (HH) compliance among health-care workers has not satisfactorily improved despite multiple educative approaches. Between October 2019 and February 2020, we performed a self-evaluation test and a direct observation for the compliance of the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene program advocated by the World Health Organization at two Japanese hospitals. Average percentages of self-evaluated HH compliance were as follows: (i) 76.9% for “Before touching a patient,” (ii) 85.8% for “Before clean/aseptic procedures,” (iii) 95.9% for “After body fluid exposure/risk,” (iv) 84.0% for “After touching a patient,” and (v) 69.2% for “After touching patient surroundings.” On the other hand, actual HH compliance was 11.7% for “Before touching a patient” and 18.0% for “After touching a patient or patient surroundings.” The present study demonstrated a big gap between self-evaluation and actual HH compliance among nurses working at hospitals, indicating the need of further providing the education in infection prevention.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Infection Prevention
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Direct observation
  • hand hygiene
  • infection control
  • prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing
  • Infectious Diseases


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