Functional division of f-type and m-type thioredoxins to regulate the Calvin cycle and cyclic electron transport around photosystem I

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Abstract

Redox regulation of chloroplast proteins is necessary to adjust photosynthetic performance with changes in light. The thioredoxin (Trx) system plays a central role in this process. Chloroplast-localized classical Trx is a small redox-active protein that regulates many target proteins by reducing their disulfide bonds in a light-dependent manner. Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking f-type Trx (trx f1f2) or m-type Trx (trx m124-2) have been reported to show delayed reduction of Calvin cycle enzymes. As a result, the trx m124-2 mutant exhibits growth defects. Here, we characterized a quintuple mutant lacking both Trx f and Trx m to investigate the functional complementarity of Trx f and Trx m. The trx f1f2 m124-2 quintuple mutant was newly obtained by crossing, and is analyzed here for the first time. The growth defects of the trx m124-2 mutant were not enhanced by the lack of Trx f. In contrast, deficiencies of both Trxs additively suppressed the reduction of Calvin cycle enzymes, resulting in a further delay in the initiation of photosynthesis. Trx f appeared to be necessary for the rapid activation of the Calvin cycle during the early induction of photosynthesis. To perform effective photosynthesis, plants seem to use both Trxs in a coordinated manner to activate carbon fixation reactions. In contrast, the PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5 (PGR5)-dependent cyclic electron transport around photosystem I was regulated by Trx m, but not by Trx f. Lack of Trx f did not affect the activity and regulation of the PGR5-dependent pathway. Trx f may have a higher specificity for target proteins, whereas Trx m has a variety of target proteins to regulate overall photosynthesis and other metabolic reactions in the chloroplasts.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Plant Research
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Chloroplast
  • Photosynthesis
  • PSI cyclic electron transport
  • Redox regulation
  • Thioredoxin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science

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