Techniques for position-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids in an in vitro protein synthesizing system are described. First, a PNA-assisted non-enzymatic tRNA aminoacylation with a variety of natural and non-natural amino acids is described. With this technique, one can aminoacylate a specific tRNA simply by adding a preformed amino acid activated ester-PNA conjugate into an in vitro protein biosynthesizing system. Second, the genetic code is expanded by introducing 4-base codons that can be exclusively translated to non-natural amino acids. The most advantageous point of the 4-base codon strategy is to introduce multiple amino acids into specific positions in single proteins by using mutually orthogonal 4-base codons and orthogonal tRNAs. An easy and quick method for preparation of tRNAs possessing 4-base anticodons is also described. Combination of the non-enzymatic aminoacylation and the 4-base codon/anticodon strategy gives an easy and widely applicable technique for incorporating a variety of non-natural amino acids into proteins in vitro.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)