First measurement of radioactive isotope production through cosmic-ray muon spallation in Super-Kamiokande IV

Y. Zhang, K. Abe, Y. Haga, Y. Hayato, M. Ikeda, K. Iyogi, J. Kameda, Y. Kishimoto, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, M. Nakahata, T. Nakajima, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, A. Orii, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, A. Takeda, H. Tanaka, T. TomuraR. A. Wendell, T. Irvine, T. Kajita, I. Kametani, K. Kaneyuki, Y. Nishimura, E. Richard, K. Okumura, L. Labarga, P. Fernandez, J. Gustafson, C. Kachulis, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, S. Berkman, C. M. Nantais, H. A. Tanaka, S. Tobayama, M. Goldhaber, G. Carminati, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Mine, A. Renshaw, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, P. Weatherly, K. S. Ganezer, B. L. Hartfiel, J. Hill, N. Hong, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, A. Himmel, Z. Li, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, T. Wongjirad, T. Ishizuka, S. Tasaka, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, S. N. Smith, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, T. Ishii, T. Kobayashi, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, T. Yano, S. Hirota, K. Huang, K. Ieki, T. Kikawa, A. Minamino, T. Nakaya, K. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, Y. Fukuda, K. Choi, Y. Itow, T. Suzuki, P. Mijakowski, K. Frankiewicz, J. Hignight, J. Imber, C. K. Jung, X. Li, J. L. Palomino, M. J. Wilking, C. Yanagisawa, Hirokazu Ishino, T. Kayano, A. Kibayashi, Yusuke Koshio, T. Mori, Makoto Sakuda, Y. Kuno, R. Tacik, S. B. Kim, H. Okazawa, Y. Choi, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, Y. Suda, Y. Totsuka, M. Yokoyama, C. Bronner, M. Hartz, K. Martens, Ll Marti, Y. Suzuki, M. R. Vagins, J. F. Martin, P. De Perio, A. Konaka, S. Chen, R. J. Wilkes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cosmic-ray-muon spallation-induced radioactive isotopes with β decays are one of the major backgrounds for solar, reactor, and supernova relic neutrino experiments. Unlike in scintillator, production yields for cosmogenic backgrounds in water have not been exclusively measured before, yet they are becoming more and more important in next generation neutrino experiments designed to search for rare signals. We have analyzed the low-energy trigger data collected at Super-Kamiokande IV in order to determine the production rates of B12, N12, N16, Be11, Li9, He8, C9, Li8, B8, and C15. These rates were extracted from fits to time differences between parent muons and subsequent daughter β's by fixing the known isotope lifetimes. Since Li9 can fake an inverse-beta-decay reaction chain via a β+n cascade decay, producing an irreducible background with detected energy up to a dozen MeV, a dedicated study is needed for evaluating its impact on future measurements; the application of a neutron tagging technique using correlated triggers was found to improve this Li9 measurement. The measured yields were generally found to be comparable with theoretical calculations, except the cases of the isotopes Li8/B8 and Li9.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012004
JournalPhysical Review D
Volume93
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 15 2016

Fingerprint

spallation
radioactive isotopes
muons
cosmic rays
decay
neutrinos
isotopes
actuators
fixing
scintillation counters
marking
supernovae
cascades
reactors
neutrons
life (durability)
energy
water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

First measurement of radioactive isotope production through cosmic-ray muon spallation in Super-Kamiokande IV. / Zhang, Y.; Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Tomura, T.; Wendell, R. A.; Irvine, T.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Richard, E.; Okumura, K.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Nantais, C. M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Carminati, G.; Griskevich, N. J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tasaka, S.; Jang, J. S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Choi, K.; Itow, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Ishino, Hirokazu; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Yusuke; Mori, T.; Sakuda, Makoto; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Suda, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Marti, Ll; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Martin, J. F.; De Perio, P.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Wilkes, R. J.

In: Physical Review D, Vol. 93, No. 1, 012004, 15.01.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhang, Y, Abe, K, Haga, Y, Hayato, Y, Ikeda, M, Iyogi, K, Kameda, J, Kishimoto, Y, Miura, M, Moriyama, S, Nakahata, M, Nakajima, T, Nakano, Y, Nakayama, S, Orii, A, Sekiya, H, Shiozawa, M, Takeda, A, Tanaka, H, Tomura, T, Wendell, RA, Irvine, T, Kajita, T, Kametani, I, Kaneyuki, K, Nishimura, Y, Richard, E, Okumura, K, Labarga, L, Fernandez, P, Gustafson, J, Kachulis, C, Kearns, E, Raaf, JL, Stone, JL, Sulak, LR, Berkman, S, Nantais, CM, Tanaka, HA, Tobayama, S, Goldhaber, M, Carminati, G, Griskevich, NJ, Kropp, WR, Mine, S, Renshaw, A, Smy, MB, Sobel, HW, Takhistov, V, Weatherly, P, Ganezer, KS, Hartfiel, BL, Hill, J, Hong, N, Kim, JY, Lim, IT, Himmel, A, Li, Z, Scholberg, K, Walter, CW, Wongjirad, T, Ishizuka, T, Tasaka, S, Jang, JS, Learned, JG, Matsuno, S, Smith, SN, Friend, M, Hasegawa, T, Ishida, T, Ishii, T, Kobayashi, T, Nakadaira, T, Nakamura, K, Oyama, Y, Sakashita, K, Sekiguchi, T, Tsukamoto, T, Suzuki, AT, Takeuchi, Y, Yano, T, Hirota, S, Huang, K, Ieki, K, Kikawa, T, Minamino, A, Nakaya, T, Suzuki, K, Takahashi, S, Fukuda, Y, Choi, K, Itow, Y, Suzuki, T, Mijakowski, P, Frankiewicz, K, Hignight, J, Imber, J, Jung, CK, Li, X, Palomino, JL, Wilking, MJ, Yanagisawa, C, Ishino, H, Kayano, T, Kibayashi, A, Koshio, Y, Mori, T, Sakuda, M, Kuno, Y, Tacik, R, Kim, SB, Okazawa, H, Choi, Y, Nishijima, K, Koshiba, M, Suda, Y, Totsuka, Y, Yokoyama, M, Bronner, C, Hartz, M, Martens, K, Marti, L, Suzuki, Y, Vagins, MR, Martin, JF, De Perio, P, Konaka, A, Chen, S & Wilkes, RJ 2016, 'First measurement of radioactive isotope production through cosmic-ray muon spallation in Super-Kamiokande IV', Physical Review D, vol. 93, no. 1, 012004. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.93.012004
Zhang, Y. ; Abe, K. ; Haga, Y. ; Hayato, Y. ; Ikeda, M. ; Iyogi, K. ; Kameda, J. ; Kishimoto, Y. ; Miura, M. ; Moriyama, S. ; Nakahata, M. ; Nakajima, T. ; Nakano, Y. ; Nakayama, S. ; Orii, A. ; Sekiya, H. ; Shiozawa, M. ; Takeda, A. ; Tanaka, H. ; Tomura, T. ; Wendell, R. A. ; Irvine, T. ; Kajita, T. ; Kametani, I. ; Kaneyuki, K. ; Nishimura, Y. ; Richard, E. ; Okumura, K. ; Labarga, L. ; Fernandez, P. ; Gustafson, J. ; Kachulis, C. ; Kearns, E. ; Raaf, J. L. ; Stone, J. L. ; Sulak, L. R. ; Berkman, S. ; Nantais, C. M. ; Tanaka, H. A. ; Tobayama, S. ; Goldhaber, M. ; Carminati, G. ; Griskevich, N. J. ; Kropp, W. R. ; Mine, S. ; Renshaw, A. ; Smy, M. B. ; Sobel, H. W. ; Takhistov, V. ; Weatherly, P. ; Ganezer, K. S. ; Hartfiel, B. L. ; Hill, J. ; Hong, N. ; Kim, J. Y. ; Lim, I. T. ; Himmel, A. ; Li, Z. ; Scholberg, K. ; Walter, C. W. ; Wongjirad, T. ; Ishizuka, T. ; Tasaka, S. ; Jang, J. S. ; Learned, J. G. ; Matsuno, S. ; Smith, S. N. ; Friend, M. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Ishida, T. ; Ishii, T. ; Kobayashi, T. ; Nakadaira, T. ; Nakamura, K. ; Oyama, Y. ; Sakashita, K. ; Sekiguchi, T. ; Tsukamoto, T. ; Suzuki, A. T. ; Takeuchi, Y. ; Yano, T. ; Hirota, S. ; Huang, K. ; Ieki, K. ; Kikawa, T. ; Minamino, A. ; Nakaya, T. ; Suzuki, K. ; Takahashi, S. ; Fukuda, Y. ; Choi, K. ; Itow, Y. ; Suzuki, T. ; Mijakowski, P. ; Frankiewicz, K. ; Hignight, J. ; Imber, J. ; Jung, C. K. ; Li, X. ; Palomino, J. L. ; Wilking, M. J. ; Yanagisawa, C. ; Ishino, Hirokazu ; Kayano, T. ; Kibayashi, A. ; Koshio, Yusuke ; Mori, T. ; Sakuda, Makoto ; Kuno, Y. ; Tacik, R. ; Kim, S. B. ; Okazawa, H. ; Choi, Y. ; Nishijima, K. ; Koshiba, M. ; Suda, Y. ; Totsuka, Y. ; Yokoyama, M. ; Bronner, C. ; Hartz, M. ; Martens, K. ; Marti, Ll ; Suzuki, Y. ; Vagins, M. R. ; Martin, J. F. ; De Perio, P. ; Konaka, A. ; Chen, S. ; Wilkes, R. J. / First measurement of radioactive isotope production through cosmic-ray muon spallation in Super-Kamiokande IV. In: Physical Review D. 2016 ; Vol. 93, No. 1.
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abstract = "Cosmic-ray-muon spallation-induced radioactive isotopes with β decays are one of the major backgrounds for solar, reactor, and supernova relic neutrino experiments. Unlike in scintillator, production yields for cosmogenic backgrounds in water have not been exclusively measured before, yet they are becoming more and more important in next generation neutrino experiments designed to search for rare signals. We have analyzed the low-energy trigger data collected at Super-Kamiokande IV in order to determine the production rates of B12, N12, N16, Be11, Li9, He8, C9, Li8, B8, and C15. These rates were extracted from fits to time differences between parent muons and subsequent daughter β's by fixing the known isotope lifetimes. Since Li9 can fake an inverse-beta-decay reaction chain via a β+n cascade decay, producing an irreducible background with detected energy up to a dozen MeV, a dedicated study is needed for evaluating its impact on future measurements; the application of a neutron tagging technique using correlated triggers was found to improve this Li9 measurement. The measured yields were generally found to be comparable with theoretical calculations, except the cases of the isotopes Li8/B8 and Li9.",
author = "Y. Zhang and K. Abe and Y. Haga and Y. Hayato and M. Ikeda and K. Iyogi and J. Kameda and Y. Kishimoto and M. Miura and S. Moriyama and M. Nakahata and T. Nakajima and Y. Nakano and S. Nakayama and A. Orii and H. Sekiya and M. Shiozawa and A. Takeda and H. Tanaka and T. Tomura and Wendell, {R. A.} and T. Irvine and T. Kajita and I. Kametani and K. Kaneyuki and Y. Nishimura and E. Richard and K. Okumura and L. Labarga and P. Fernandez and J. Gustafson and C. Kachulis and E. Kearns and Raaf, {J. L.} and Stone, {J. L.} and Sulak, {L. R.} and S. Berkman and Nantais, {C. M.} and Tanaka, {H. A.} and S. Tobayama and M. Goldhaber and G. Carminati and Griskevich, {N. J.} and Kropp, {W. R.} and S. Mine and A. Renshaw and Smy, {M. B.} and Sobel, {H. W.} and V. Takhistov and P. Weatherly and Ganezer, {K. S.} and Hartfiel, {B. L.} and J. Hill and N. Hong and Kim, {J. Y.} and Lim, {I. T.} and A. Himmel and Z. Li and K. Scholberg and Walter, {C. W.} and T. Wongjirad and T. Ishizuka and S. Tasaka and Jang, {J. S.} and Learned, {J. G.} and S. Matsuno and Smith, {S. N.} and M. Friend and T. Hasegawa and T. Ishida and T. Ishii and T. Kobayashi and T. Nakadaira and K. Nakamura and Y. Oyama and K. Sakashita and T. Sekiguchi and T. Tsukamoto and Suzuki, {A. T.} and Y. Takeuchi and T. Yano and S. Hirota and K. Huang and K. Ieki and T. Kikawa and A. Minamino and T. Nakaya and K. Suzuki and S. Takahashi and Y. Fukuda and K. Choi and Y. Itow and T. Suzuki and P. Mijakowski and K. Frankiewicz and J. Hignight and J. Imber and Jung, {C. K.} and X. Li and Palomino, {J. L.} and Wilking, {M. J.} and C. Yanagisawa and Hirokazu Ishino and T. Kayano and A. Kibayashi and Yusuke Koshio and T. Mori and Makoto Sakuda and Y. Kuno and R. Tacik and Kim, {S. B.} and H. Okazawa and Y. Choi and K. Nishijima and M. Koshiba and Y. Suda and Y. Totsuka and M. Yokoyama and C. Bronner and M. Hartz and K. Martens and Ll Marti and Y. Suzuki and Vagins, {M. R.} and Martin, {J. F.} and {De Perio}, P. and A. Konaka and S. Chen and Wilkes, {R. J.}",
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T1 - First measurement of radioactive isotope production through cosmic-ray muon spallation in Super-Kamiokande IV

AU - Zhang, Y.

AU - Abe, K.

AU - Haga, Y.

AU - Hayato, Y.

AU - Ikeda, M.

AU - Iyogi, K.

AU - Kameda, J.

AU - Kishimoto, Y.

AU - Miura, M.

AU - Moriyama, S.

AU - Nakahata, M.

AU - Nakajima, T.

AU - Nakano, Y.

AU - Nakayama, S.

AU - Orii, A.

AU - Sekiya, H.

AU - Shiozawa, M.

AU - Takeda, A.

AU - Tanaka, H.

AU - Tomura, T.

AU - Wendell, R. A.

AU - Irvine, T.

AU - Kajita, T.

AU - Kametani, I.

AU - Kaneyuki, K.

AU - Nishimura, Y.

AU - Richard, E.

AU - Okumura, K.

AU - Labarga, L.

AU - Fernandez, P.

AU - Gustafson, J.

AU - Kachulis, C.

AU - Kearns, E.

AU - Raaf, J. L.

AU - Stone, J. L.

AU - Sulak, L. R.

AU - Berkman, S.

AU - Nantais, C. M.

AU - Tanaka, H. A.

AU - Tobayama, S.

AU - Goldhaber, M.

AU - Carminati, G.

AU - Griskevich, N. J.

AU - Kropp, W. R.

AU - Mine, S.

AU - Renshaw, A.

AU - Smy, M. B.

AU - Sobel, H. W.

AU - Takhistov, V.

AU - Weatherly, P.

AU - Ganezer, K. S.

AU - Hartfiel, B. L.

AU - Hill, J.

AU - Hong, N.

AU - Kim, J. Y.

AU - Lim, I. T.

AU - Himmel, A.

AU - Li, Z.

AU - Scholberg, K.

AU - Walter, C. W.

AU - Wongjirad, T.

AU - Ishizuka, T.

AU - Tasaka, S.

AU - Jang, J. S.

AU - Learned, J. G.

AU - Matsuno, S.

AU - Smith, S. N.

AU - Friend, M.

AU - Hasegawa, T.

AU - Ishida, T.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Kobayashi, T.

AU - Nakadaira, T.

AU - Nakamura, K.

AU - Oyama, Y.

AU - Sakashita, K.

AU - Sekiguchi, T.

AU - Tsukamoto, T.

AU - Suzuki, A. T.

AU - Takeuchi, Y.

AU - Yano, T.

AU - Hirota, S.

AU - Huang, K.

AU - Ieki, K.

AU - Kikawa, T.

AU - Minamino, A.

AU - Nakaya, T.

AU - Suzuki, K.

AU - Takahashi, S.

AU - Fukuda, Y.

AU - Choi, K.

AU - Itow, Y.

AU - Suzuki, T.

AU - Mijakowski, P.

AU - Frankiewicz, K.

AU - Hignight, J.

AU - Imber, J.

AU - Jung, C. K.

AU - Li, X.

AU - Palomino, J. L.

AU - Wilking, M. J.

AU - Yanagisawa, C.

AU - Ishino, Hirokazu

AU - Kayano, T.

AU - Kibayashi, A.

AU - Koshio, Yusuke

AU - Mori, T.

AU - Sakuda, Makoto

AU - Kuno, Y.

AU - Tacik, R.

AU - Kim, S. B.

AU - Okazawa, H.

AU - Choi, Y.

AU - Nishijima, K.

AU - Koshiba, M.

AU - Suda, Y.

AU - Totsuka, Y.

AU - Yokoyama, M.

AU - Bronner, C.

AU - Hartz, M.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Marti, Ll

AU - Suzuki, Y.

AU - Vagins, M. R.

AU - Martin, J. F.

AU - De Perio, P.

AU - Konaka, A.

AU - Chen, S.

AU - Wilkes, R. J.

PY - 2016/1/15

Y1 - 2016/1/15

N2 - Cosmic-ray-muon spallation-induced radioactive isotopes with β decays are one of the major backgrounds for solar, reactor, and supernova relic neutrino experiments. Unlike in scintillator, production yields for cosmogenic backgrounds in water have not been exclusively measured before, yet they are becoming more and more important in next generation neutrino experiments designed to search for rare signals. We have analyzed the low-energy trigger data collected at Super-Kamiokande IV in order to determine the production rates of B12, N12, N16, Be11, Li9, He8, C9, Li8, B8, and C15. These rates were extracted from fits to time differences between parent muons and subsequent daughter β's by fixing the known isotope lifetimes. Since Li9 can fake an inverse-beta-decay reaction chain via a β+n cascade decay, producing an irreducible background with detected energy up to a dozen MeV, a dedicated study is needed for evaluating its impact on future measurements; the application of a neutron tagging technique using correlated triggers was found to improve this Li9 measurement. The measured yields were generally found to be comparable with theoretical calculations, except the cases of the isotopes Li8/B8 and Li9.

AB - Cosmic-ray-muon spallation-induced radioactive isotopes with β decays are one of the major backgrounds for solar, reactor, and supernova relic neutrino experiments. Unlike in scintillator, production yields for cosmogenic backgrounds in water have not been exclusively measured before, yet they are becoming more and more important in next generation neutrino experiments designed to search for rare signals. We have analyzed the low-energy trigger data collected at Super-Kamiokande IV in order to determine the production rates of B12, N12, N16, Be11, Li9, He8, C9, Li8, B8, and C15. These rates were extracted from fits to time differences between parent muons and subsequent daughter β's by fixing the known isotope lifetimes. Since Li9 can fake an inverse-beta-decay reaction chain via a β+n cascade decay, producing an irreducible background with detected energy up to a dozen MeV, a dedicated study is needed for evaluating its impact on future measurements; the application of a neutron tagging technique using correlated triggers was found to improve this Li9 measurement. The measured yields were generally found to be comparable with theoretical calculations, except the cases of the isotopes Li8/B8 and Li9.

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U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.012004

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.012004

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84955242956

VL - 93

JO - Physical review D: Particles and fields

JF - Physical review D: Particles and fields

SN - 0556-2821

IS - 1

M1 - 012004

ER -