Fingerprinting protocol for images based on additive homomorphic property

Minoru Kuribayashi, Hatsukazu Tanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Citations (Scopus)


Homomorphic property of public-key cryptosystems is applied for several cryptographic protocols, such as electronic cash, voting system, bidding protocols, etc. Several fingerprinting protocols also exploit the property to achieve an asymmetric system. However, their enciphering rate is extremely low and the implementation of watermarking technique is difficult. In this paper, we propose a new fingerprinting protocol applying additive homomorphic property of Okamoto-Uchiyama encryption scheme. Exploiting the property ingenuously, the enciphering rate of our fingerprinting scheme can be close to the corresponding cryptosystem. We study the problem of implementation of watermarking technique and propose a successful method to embed an encrypted information without knowing the plain value. The security can also be protected for both a buyer and a merchant in our scheme.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2129-2139
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Additive homomorphic property
  • Enciphering rate
  • Fingerprinting protocol
  • Quantization method
  • Watermark

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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