Feasibility of synchronization of real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy from viewpoint of excessive dose from fluoroscopy

Hiroki Shirato, Masataka Oita, Katsuhisa Fujita, Yoshiharu Watanabe, Kazuo Miyasaka

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75 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose Synchronization of the techniques in real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is expected to be useful for the treatment of tumors in motion. Our goal was to estimate the feasibility of the synchronization from the viewpoint of excessive dose resulting from the use of fluoroscopy. Methods and materials Using an ionization chamber for diagnostic X-rays, we measured the air kerma rate, surface dose with backscatter, and dose distribution in depth in a solid phantom from a fluoroscopic RTRT system. A nominal 50-120 kilovoltage peak (kVp) of X-ray energy and a nominal 1-4 ms of pulse width were used in the measurements. Results The mean ± SD air kerma rate from one fluoroscope was 238.8 ± 0.54 mGy/h for a nominal pulse width of 2.0 ms and nominal 100 kVp of X-ray energy at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. The air kerma rate increased steeply with the increase in the X-ray beam energy. The surface dose was 28-980 mGy/h. The absorbed dose at a 5.0-cm depth in the phantom was 37-58% of the peak dose. The estimated skin surface dose from one fluoroscope in RTRT was 29-1182 mGy/h and was strongly dependent on the kilovoltage peak and pulse width of the fluoroscope and slightly dependent on the distance between the skin and isocenter. Conclusion The skin surface dose and absorbed depth dose resulting from fluoroscopy during RTRT can be significant if RTRT is synchronized with IMRT using a multileaf collimator. Precise estimation of the absorbed dose from fluoroscopy during RT and approaches to reduce the amount of exposure are mandatory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-341
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2004
Externally publishedYes



  • Dosimetry
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiation

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