Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a Gram-negative, multidrug-resistant organism that both opportunistically infects the bloodstream and leads to pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients, including those with hematologic malignancies. In patients with severe respiratory failure, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) can stabilize the respiratory status. However, whether ECMO in patients with hematologic malignancies improves the clinical outcomes is still controversial because ECMO increases the risk of the exacerbation of sepsis and bleeding. We report a case of a 46-year-old man with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia hemorrhagic pneumonia acquired during consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia in whom VV ECMO lead to a good clinical outcome. The stabilization of his respiratory status achieved with VV ECMO allowed time for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole antibiotic therapy to improve the pneumonia. We suggest the background of patients, including comorbidities and general conditions, should be taken into account when considering the clinical indications of ECMO.
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis
- Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
- Severe pneumonia
- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine