Extracellular Vesicles: New Classification and Tumor Immunosuppression

Mona Sheta, Eman A. Taha, Yanyin Lu, Takanori Eguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane-surrounded vesicles carrying various types of molecules. These EV cargoes are often used as pathophysiological biomarkers and delivered to recipient cells whose fates are often altered in local and distant tissues. Classical EVs are exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, while recent studies discovered autophagic EVs, stressed EVs, and matrix vesicles. Here, we classify classical and new EVs and non-EV nanoparticles. We also review EVs-mediated intercellular communication between cancer cells and various types of tumor-associated cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts, adipocytes, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and immune cells. Of note, cancer EVs play crucial roles in immunosuppression, immune evasion, and immunotherapy resistance. Thus, cancer EVs change hot tumors into cold ones. Moreover, cancer EVs affect nonimmune cells to promote cellular transformation, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), chemoresistance, tumor matrix production, destruction of biological barriers, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and metastatic niche formation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • amphisome
  • autophagy
  • cellular communication
  • exosome
  • extracellular vesicle
  • immune evasion
  • immunosuppression
  • matrix vesicle
  • therapy resistance
  • tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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