Extracellular vesicles enriched with moonlighting metalloproteinase are highly transmissive, pro-tumorigenic, and trans-activates cellular communication network factor (Ccn2/ctgf): Crispr against cancer

Yuka Okusya, Takanori Eguchi, Manh T. Tran, Chiharu Sogawa, Kaya Yoshida, Mami Itagaki, Eman A. Taha, Kisho Ono, Eriko Aoyama, Hirohiko Okamura, Ken-ichi Kozaki, Stuart K. Calderwood, Masaharu Takigawa, Kuniaki Okamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) plays multiple roles in extracellular proteolysis as well as intracellular transcription, prompting a new definition of moonlighting metalloproteinase (MMP), according to a definition of protein moonlighting (or gene sharing), a phenomenon by which a protein can perform more than one function. Indeed, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, aka cellular communication network factor 2 (CCN2)) is transcriptionally induced as well as cleaved by MMP3. Moreover, several members of the MMP family have been found within tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). We here investigated the roles of MMP3-rich EVs in tumor progression, molecular transmission, and gene regulation. EVs derived from a rapidly metastatic cancer cell line (LuM1) were enriched in MMP3 and a C-terminal half fragment of CCN2/CTGF. MMP3-rich, LuM1-derived EVs were disseminated to multiple organs through body fluid and were pro-tumorigenic in an allograft mouse model, which prompted us to define LuM1-EVs as oncosomes in the present study. Oncosome-derived MMP3 was transferred into recipient cell nuclei and thereby trans-activated the CCN2/CTGF promoter, and induced CCN2/CTGF production in vitro. TRENDIC and other cis-elements in the CCN2/CTGF promoter were essential for the oncosomal responsivity. The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of MMP3 showed significant anti-tumor effects such as the inhibition of migration and invasion of tumor cells, and a reduction in CCN2/CTGF promoter activity and fragmentations in vitro. A high expression level of MMP3 or CCN2/CTGF mRNA was prognostic and unfavorable in particular types of cancers including head and neck, lung, pancreatic, cervical, stomach, and urothelial cancers. These data newly demonstrate that oncogenic EVs-derived MMP is a transmissive trans-activator for the cellular communication network gene and promotes tumorigenesis at distant sites.

Original languageEnglish
Article number881
JournalCancers
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020

Keywords

  • CCN2/CTGF
  • CRISPR
  • Cellular communication network factor
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Genome editing
  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • Moonlighting metalloproteinase (MMP)
  • Oncosome
  • Protein moonlighting
  • Transcription factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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