Extracellular ATP released from stimulated and/or damaged cells modulates physiological responses via stimulation of various purinoceptors. We previously showed that ATP potentiated the Ag-induced mast cell (MC) degranulation via purinoceptors pharmacologically similar to the ionotropic P2X4 receptor. In this study, we investigated the role of P2X4 receptor in MC degranulation induced by stimulation of IgE-Fc«RI complex with Ag, using bone marrow-derived MCs (BMMCs) prepared from wild type and P2X4 receptor-deficient (P2rx4-/-) mice. ATP significantly increased Ag-induced degranulation in BMMCs prepared from wild type mice. This effect of ATP was reduced in BMMCs prepared from P2rx4-/- mice. The potentiating effect of ATP was restored by expressing P2X4 receptor in P2rx4-/- BMMCs. The P2X4 receptor-mediated effects were maintained even after differentiating into the connective tissue-type MCs. P2X4 receptor stimulation did not affect the Ag-induced Ca2+ response but enhanced Ag-induced early signals, such as tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and phospholipase C-γ. Interestingly, these effects of ATP on Syk phosphorylation were not impaired by pretreatment with Cu2+, an inhibitor of the P2X4 receptor channel, or removal of external Ca2+, suggesting that a mechanisms other than Ca2+ influx through ion channel activity may be involved. In vivo experiments revealed that systemic and intradermal passive anaphylaxis responses were significantly alleviated in P2rx42/2 mice. Taken together, the present data suggest that the P2X4 receptor plays an essential role in ATP-induced upregulation of MC degranulation in response to Ag, and also contributes to the Ag-induced allergic response in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy