Extendable Endoprostheses in Skeletally Immature Patients: A Study of 124 Children Surviving More Than 10 Years After Resection of Bone Sarcomas

Yusuke Tsuda, Kim Tsoi, Jonathan D. Stevenson, Tomohiro Fujiwara, Roger Tillman, Adesegun Abudu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Extendable endoprostheses are used to reconstruct segmental defects following resection of bone sarcomas in skeletally immature patients. However, there remains a paucity of studies with regard to long-term outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 124 skeletally immature children who underwent an extendable endoprosthetic replacement and survived more than 10 years after the surgical procedures. Anatomical sites included the distal part of the femur (n = 66), the proximal part of the femur (n = 13), the proximal part of the tibia (n = 29), and the proximal part of the humerus (n = 16). Complications and implant survival were classified according to the modified Henderson criteria. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 24 years (range, 10 to 36 years). The mean age at the time of the extendable endoprosthetic replacement was 9 years (range, 2 to 16 years). All patients had reached skeletal maturity at the last follow-up. The 10-year endoprosthetic failure-free survival rate was 28%. A total of 243 complications occurred in 90% of patients; these complications were most frequently related to soft-tissue problems (27% of complications). The incidence of and cumulative survival with respect to each failure mode varied between anatomical sites. Soft-tissue failures occurred most frequently in the proximal part of the femur (77%; p = 0.003), and the distal part of the femur was the most frequent site of aseptic loosening (52%; p = 0.014) and structural failure (55%; p = 0.001). Excluding lengthening procedures, 105 patients (85%) underwent an additional surgical procedure, with a mean of 2.7 surgical procedures per patient (range, 0 to 7 surgical procedures per patient). The mean limb-length discrepancy at the final follow-up was 1 cm (range, 0 to 9 cm). Limb salvage was achieved in 113 patients (91%). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score (the percentage of a total score of 30 points) was 82% (range, 40% to 100%) in 115 patients with available data at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Extendable endoprostheses are associated with a high complication rate and a need for additional surgical procedures over time. Despite this, successful limb salvage with reasonable function and small limb-length discrepancy is achievable in the long term. Our study provides benchmark data for individual anatomical sites for further improvements of outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-162
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 15 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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