A versatile method for converting various fluorescent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) excimer dyes with high glum and φFL values is reported. This method involves the functionalization of a chiral quaternaphthyl with six fluorophores via ester linkages in the last step of the synthesis. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated for 1-, 2-, and 4-pyrenyl, 2- and 3-perylenyl, and 2-anthryl dyes. Most of them are the first or rare examples of CPL dyes. In the ground state, the fluorophores are tightly arranged by cumulative steric and electronic effects. In the excited state, the fluorophores form a twist excimer that maintains the ground-state conformations. The local chiral excimer directly affected the CPL properties. The systematic study on the signs of the CPLs allowed us to find a rule called the excimer chirality rule: right- and left-handed excimers exhibit (+)- and (-)-CPL, respectively.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry