Alternaria alternata includes seven pathogenic variants, called pathotypes, which produce host-selective toxins (HSTs) as determinant factors for pathogenicity. The gene clusters for HST biosynthesis were identified from six pathotypes (Japanese pear, strawberry, tangerine, apple, tomato and rough lemon) and were found to reside on small chromosomes of <2.0 Mb in most strains tested. We isolated mutants lacking the small chromosomes from the strawberry, apple and tomato pathotypes and showed that the small chromosomes are dispensable for growth. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the evolution of pathogenicity controlled by small, dispensable chromosomes in Alternaria alternata pathogens.
- Alternaria alternata
- Conditionally dispensable chromosome
- Host-selective toxin
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science