Evidence for muon neutrino oscillation in an accelerator-based experiment

E. Aliu, S. Andringa, S. Aoki, J. Argyriades, K. Asakura, R. Ashie, H. Berns, H. Bhang, A. Blondel, S. Borghi, J. Bouchez, J. Burguet-Castell, D. Casper, C. Cavata, A. Cervera, K. O. Cho, J. H. Choi, U. Dore, X. Espinal, M. Fechner & 138 others E. Fernandez, Y. Fukuda, J. Gomez-Cadenas, R. Gran, T. Hara, M. Hasegawa, T. Hasegawa, K. Hayashi, Y. Hayato, R. L. Helmer, J. Hill, K. Hiraide, J. Hosaka, A. K. Ichikawa, M. Iinuma, A. Ikeda, T. Inagaki, T. Ishida, K. Ishihara, T. Ishii, M. Ishitsuka, Y. Itow, T. Iwashita, H. I. Jang, E. J. Jeon, I. S. Jeong, K. Joo, G. Jover, C. K. Jung, T. Kajita, J. Kameda, K. Kaneyuki, I. Kato, E. Kearns, D. Kerr, C. O. Kim, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, D. Kielczewska, J. Y. Kim, S. Kim, P. Kitching, K. Kobayashi, T. Kobayashi, A. Konaka, Yusuke Koshio, W. Kropp, J. Kubota, Y. Kudenko, Y. Kuno, T. Kutter, J. Learned, S. Likhoded, I. T. Lim, P. F. Loverre, L. Ludovici, H. Maesaka, J. Mallet, C. Mariani, T. Maruyama, S. Matsuno, V. Matveev, C. Mauger, K. McConnel, C. McGrew, S. Mikheyev, A. Minamino, S. Mine, O. Mineev, C. Mitsuda, M. Miura, Y. Moriguchi, T. Morita, S. Moriyama, T. Nakadaira, M. Nakahata, K. Nakamura, I. Nakano, T. Nakaya, S. Nakayama, T. Namba, R. Nambu, S. Nawang, K. Nishikawa, K. Nitta, F. Nova, P. Novella, Y. Obayashi, A. Okada, K. Okumura, S. M. Oser, Y. Oyama, M. Y. Pac, F. Pierre, A. Rodriguez, C. Saji, Makoto Sakuda, F. Sanchez, A. Sarrat, T. Sasaki, K. Scholberg, R. Schroeter, M. Sekiguchi, E. Sharkey, M. Shiozawa, K. Shiraishi, G. Sitjes, M. Smy, H. Sobel, J. Stone, L. Sulak, A. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, Y. Takenaga, Y. Takeuchi, K. Taki, Y. Takubo, N. Tamura, M. Tanaka, R. Terri, S. T'Jampens, A. Tornero-Lopez, Y. Totsuka, S. Ueda, M. Vagins, C. W. Walter, W. Wang, R. J. Wilkes, S. Yamada, S. Yamamoto, C. Yanagisawa, N. Yershov, H. Yokoyama, M. Yokoyama, J. Yoo, M. Yoshida, J. Zalipska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

383 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present results for νμ oscillation in the KEK to Kamioka (K2K) long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. K2K uses an accelerator-produced νμ beam with a mean energy of 1.3 GeV directed at the Super-Kamiokande detector. We observed the energy-dependent disappearance of vmu;, which we presume have oscillated to ντ. The probability that we would observe these results if there is no neutrino oscillation is 0.0050% (4.0σ).

Original languageEnglish
Article number081802
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Volume94
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 4 2005

Fingerprint

muons
accelerators
neutrinos
oscillations
energy
detectors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Aliu, E., Andringa, S., Aoki, S., Argyriades, J., Asakura, K., Ashie, R., ... Zalipska, J. (2005). Evidence for muon neutrino oscillation in an accelerator-based experiment. Physical Review Letters, 94(8), [081802]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.081802

Evidence for muon neutrino oscillation in an accelerator-based experiment. / Aliu, E.; Andringa, S.; Aoki, S.; Argyriades, J.; Asakura, K.; Ashie, R.; Berns, H.; Bhang, H.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Bouchez, J.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Casper, D.; Cavata, C.; Cervera, A.; Cho, K. O.; Choi, J. H.; Dore, U.; Espinal, X.; Fechner, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fukuda, Y.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.; Gran, R.; Hara, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hayashi, K.; Hayato, Y.; Helmer, R. L.; Hill, J.; Hiraide, K.; Hosaka, J.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Iinuma, M.; Ikeda, A.; Inagaki, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishihara, K.; Ishii, T.; Ishitsuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Jang, H. I.; Jeon, E. J.; Jeong, I. S.; Joo, K.; Jover, G.; Jung, C. K.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kato, I.; Kearns, E.; Kerr, D.; Kim, C. O.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Konaka, A.; Koshio, Yusuke; Kropp, W.; Kubota, J.; Kudenko, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Kutter, T.; Learned, J.; Likhoded, S.; Lim, I. T.; Loverre, P. F.; Ludovici, L.; Maesaka, H.; Mallet, J.; Mariani, C.; Maruyama, T.; Matsuno, S.; Matveev, V.; Mauger, C.; McConnel, K.; McGrew, C.; Mikheyev, S.; Minamino, A.; Mine, S.; Mineev, O.; Mitsuda, C.; Miura, M.; Moriguchi, Y.; Morita, T.; Moriyama, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayama, S.; Namba, T.; Nambu, R.; Nawang, S.; Nishikawa, K.; Nitta, K.; Nova, F.; Novella, P.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Okumura, K.; Oser, S. M.; Oyama, Y.; Pac, M. Y.; Pierre, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Saji, C.; Sakuda, Makoto; Sanchez, F.; Sarrat, A.; Sasaki, T.; Scholberg, K.; Schroeter, R.; Sekiguchi, M.; Sharkey, E.; Shiozawa, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Sitjes, G.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Stone, J.; Sulak, L.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Takenaga, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Taki, K.; Takubo, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Terri, R.; T'Jampens, S.; Tornero-Lopez, A.; Totsuka, Y.; Ueda, S.; Vagins, M.; Walter, C. W.; Wang, W.; Wilkes, R. J.; Yamada, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, M.; Zalipska, J.

In: Physical Review Letters, Vol. 94, No. 8, 081802, 04.03.2005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aliu, E, Andringa, S, Aoki, S, Argyriades, J, Asakura, K, Ashie, R, Berns, H, Bhang, H, Blondel, A, Borghi, S, Bouchez, J, Burguet-Castell, J, Casper, D, Cavata, C, Cervera, A, Cho, KO, Choi, JH, Dore, U, Espinal, X, Fechner, M, Fernandez, E, Fukuda, Y, Gomez-Cadenas, J, Gran, R, Hara, T, Hasegawa, M, Hasegawa, T, Hayashi, K, Hayato, Y, Helmer, RL, Hill, J, Hiraide, K, Hosaka, J, Ichikawa, AK, Iinuma, M, Ikeda, A, Inagaki, T, Ishida, T, Ishihara, K, Ishii, T, Ishitsuka, M, Itow, Y, Iwashita, T, Jang, HI, Jeon, EJ, Jeong, IS, Joo, K, Jover, G, Jung, CK, Kajita, T, Kameda, J, Kaneyuki, K, Kato, I, Kearns, E, Kerr, D, Kim, CO, Khabibullin, M, Khotjantsev, A, Kielczewska, D, Kim, JY, Kim, S, Kitching, P, Kobayashi, K, Kobayashi, T, Konaka, A, Koshio, Y, Kropp, W, Kubota, J, Kudenko, Y, Kuno, Y, Kutter, T, Learned, J, Likhoded, S, Lim, IT, Loverre, PF, Ludovici, L, Maesaka, H, Mallet, J, Mariani, C, Maruyama, T, Matsuno, S, Matveev, V, Mauger, C, McConnel, K, McGrew, C, Mikheyev, S, Minamino, A, Mine, S, Mineev, O, Mitsuda, C, Miura, M, Moriguchi, Y, Morita, T, Moriyama, S, Nakadaira, T, Nakahata, M, Nakamura, K, Nakano, I, Nakaya, T, Nakayama, S, Namba, T, Nambu, R, Nawang, S, Nishikawa, K, Nitta, K, Nova, F, Novella, P, Obayashi, Y, Okada, A, Okumura, K, Oser, SM, Oyama, Y, Pac, MY, Pierre, F, Rodriguez, A, Saji, C, Sakuda, M, Sanchez, F, Sarrat, A, Sasaki, T, Scholberg, K, Schroeter, R, Sekiguchi, M, Sharkey, E, Shiozawa, M, Shiraishi, K, Sitjes, G, Smy, M, Sobel, H, Stone, J, Sulak, L, Suzuki, A, Suzuki, Y, Takahashi, T, Takenaga, Y, Takeuchi, Y, Taki, K, Takubo, Y, Tamura, N, Tanaka, M, Terri, R, T'Jampens, S, Tornero-Lopez, A, Totsuka, Y, Ueda, S, Vagins, M, Walter, CW, Wang, W, Wilkes, RJ, Yamada, S, Yamamoto, S, Yanagisawa, C, Yershov, N, Yokoyama, H, Yokoyama, M, Yoo, J, Yoshida, M & Zalipska, J 2005, 'Evidence for muon neutrino oscillation in an accelerator-based experiment', Physical Review Letters, vol. 94, no. 8, 081802. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.081802
Aliu E, Andringa S, Aoki S, Argyriades J, Asakura K, Ashie R et al. Evidence for muon neutrino oscillation in an accelerator-based experiment. Physical Review Letters. 2005 Mar 4;94(8). 081802. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.081802
Aliu, E. ; Andringa, S. ; Aoki, S. ; Argyriades, J. ; Asakura, K. ; Ashie, R. ; Berns, H. ; Bhang, H. ; Blondel, A. ; Borghi, S. ; Bouchez, J. ; Burguet-Castell, J. ; Casper, D. ; Cavata, C. ; Cervera, A. ; Cho, K. O. ; Choi, J. H. ; Dore, U. ; Espinal, X. ; Fechner, M. ; Fernandez, E. ; Fukuda, Y. ; Gomez-Cadenas, J. ; Gran, R. ; Hara, T. ; Hasegawa, M. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Hayashi, K. ; Hayato, Y. ; Helmer, R. L. ; Hill, J. ; Hiraide, K. ; Hosaka, J. ; Ichikawa, A. K. ; Iinuma, M. ; Ikeda, A. ; Inagaki, T. ; Ishida, T. ; Ishihara, K. ; Ishii, T. ; Ishitsuka, M. ; Itow, Y. ; Iwashita, T. ; Jang, H. I. ; Jeon, E. J. ; Jeong, I. S. ; Joo, K. ; Jover, G. ; Jung, C. K. ; Kajita, T. ; Kameda, J. ; Kaneyuki, K. ; Kato, I. ; Kearns, E. ; Kerr, D. ; Kim, C. O. ; Khabibullin, M. ; Khotjantsev, A. ; Kielczewska, D. ; Kim, J. Y. ; Kim, S. ; Kitching, P. ; Kobayashi, K. ; Kobayashi, T. ; Konaka, A. ; Koshio, Yusuke ; Kropp, W. ; Kubota, J. ; Kudenko, Y. ; Kuno, Y. ; Kutter, T. ; Learned, J. ; Likhoded, S. ; Lim, I. T. ; Loverre, P. F. ; Ludovici, L. ; Maesaka, H. ; Mallet, J. ; Mariani, C. ; Maruyama, T. ; Matsuno, S. ; Matveev, V. ; Mauger, C. ; McConnel, K. ; McGrew, C. ; Mikheyev, S. ; Minamino, A. ; Mine, S. ; Mineev, O. ; Mitsuda, C. ; Miura, M. ; Moriguchi, Y. ; Morita, T. ; Moriyama, S. ; Nakadaira, T. ; Nakahata, M. ; Nakamura, K. ; Nakano, I. ; Nakaya, T. ; Nakayama, S. ; Namba, T. ; Nambu, R. ; Nawang, S. ; Nishikawa, K. ; Nitta, K. ; Nova, F. ; Novella, P. ; Obayashi, Y. ; Okada, A. ; Okumura, K. ; Oser, S. M. ; Oyama, Y. ; Pac, M. Y. ; Pierre, F. ; Rodriguez, A. ; Saji, C. ; Sakuda, Makoto ; Sanchez, F. ; Sarrat, A. ; Sasaki, T. ; Scholberg, K. ; Schroeter, R. ; Sekiguchi, M. ; Sharkey, E. ; Shiozawa, M. ; Shiraishi, K. ; Sitjes, G. ; Smy, M. ; Sobel, H. ; Stone, J. ; Sulak, L. ; Suzuki, A. ; Suzuki, Y. ; Takahashi, T. ; Takenaga, Y. ; Takeuchi, Y. ; Taki, K. ; Takubo, Y. ; Tamura, N. ; Tanaka, M. ; Terri, R. ; T'Jampens, S. ; Tornero-Lopez, A. ; Totsuka, Y. ; Ueda, S. ; Vagins, M. ; Walter, C. W. ; Wang, W. ; Wilkes, R. J. ; Yamada, S. ; Yamamoto, S. ; Yanagisawa, C. ; Yershov, N. ; Yokoyama, H. ; Yokoyama, M. ; Yoo, J. ; Yoshida, M. ; Zalipska, J. / Evidence for muon neutrino oscillation in an accelerator-based experiment. In: Physical Review Letters. 2005 ; Vol. 94, No. 8.
@article{e21e88eb827c41949ce3e135c5a8146f,
title = "Evidence for muon neutrino oscillation in an accelerator-based experiment",
abstract = "We present results for νμ oscillation in the KEK to Kamioka (K2K) long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. K2K uses an accelerator-produced νμ beam with a mean energy of 1.3 GeV directed at the Super-Kamiokande detector. We observed the energy-dependent disappearance of vmu;, which we presume have oscillated to ντ. The probability that we would observe these results if there is no neutrino oscillation is 0.0050{\%} (4.0σ).",
author = "E. Aliu and S. Andringa and S. Aoki and J. Argyriades and K. Asakura and R. Ashie and H. Berns and H. Bhang and A. Blondel and S. Borghi and J. Bouchez and J. Burguet-Castell and D. Casper and C. Cavata and A. Cervera and Cho, {K. O.} and Choi, {J. H.} and U. Dore and X. Espinal and M. Fechner and E. Fernandez and Y. Fukuda and J. Gomez-Cadenas and R. Gran and T. Hara and M. Hasegawa and T. Hasegawa and K. Hayashi and Y. Hayato and Helmer, {R. L.} and J. Hill and K. Hiraide and J. Hosaka and Ichikawa, {A. K.} and M. Iinuma and A. Ikeda and T. Inagaki and T. Ishida and K. Ishihara and T. Ishii and M. Ishitsuka and Y. Itow and T. Iwashita and Jang, {H. I.} and Jeon, {E. J.} and Jeong, {I. S.} and K. Joo and G. Jover and Jung, {C. K.} and T. Kajita and J. Kameda and K. Kaneyuki and I. Kato and E. Kearns and D. Kerr and Kim, {C. O.} and M. Khabibullin and A. Khotjantsev and D. Kielczewska and Kim, {J. Y.} and S. Kim and P. Kitching and K. Kobayashi and T. Kobayashi and A. Konaka and Yusuke Koshio and W. Kropp and J. Kubota and Y. Kudenko and Y. Kuno and T. Kutter and J. Learned and S. Likhoded and Lim, {I. T.} and Loverre, {P. F.} and L. Ludovici and H. Maesaka and J. Mallet and C. Mariani and T. Maruyama and S. Matsuno and V. Matveev and C. Mauger and K. McConnel and C. McGrew and S. Mikheyev and A. Minamino and S. Mine and O. Mineev and C. Mitsuda and M. Miura and Y. Moriguchi and T. Morita and S. Moriyama and T. Nakadaira and M. Nakahata and K. Nakamura and I. Nakano and T. Nakaya and S. Nakayama and T. Namba and R. Nambu and S. Nawang and K. Nishikawa and K. Nitta and F. Nova and P. Novella and Y. Obayashi and A. Okada and K. Okumura and Oser, {S. M.} and Y. Oyama and Pac, {M. Y.} and F. Pierre and A. Rodriguez and C. Saji and Makoto Sakuda and F. Sanchez and A. Sarrat and T. Sasaki and K. Scholberg and R. Schroeter and M. Sekiguchi and E. Sharkey and M. Shiozawa and K. Shiraishi and G. Sitjes and M. Smy and H. Sobel and J. Stone and L. Sulak and A. Suzuki and Y. Suzuki and T. Takahashi and Y. Takenaga and Y. Takeuchi and K. Taki and Y. Takubo and N. Tamura and M. Tanaka and R. Terri and S. T'Jampens and A. Tornero-Lopez and Y. Totsuka and S. Ueda and M. Vagins and Walter, {C. W.} and W. Wang and Wilkes, {R. J.} and S. Yamada and S. Yamamoto and C. Yanagisawa and N. Yershov and H. Yokoyama and M. Yokoyama and J. Yoo and M. Yoshida and J. Zalipska",
year = "2005",
month = "3",
day = "4",
doi = "10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.081802",
language = "English",
volume = "94",
journal = "Physical Review Letters",
issn = "0031-9007",
publisher = "American Physical Society",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evidence for muon neutrino oscillation in an accelerator-based experiment

AU - Aliu, E.

AU - Andringa, S.

AU - Aoki, S.

AU - Argyriades, J.

AU - Asakura, K.

AU - Ashie, R.

AU - Berns, H.

AU - Bhang, H.

AU - Blondel, A.

AU - Borghi, S.

AU - Bouchez, J.

AU - Burguet-Castell, J.

AU - Casper, D.

AU - Cavata, C.

AU - Cervera, A.

AU - Cho, K. O.

AU - Choi, J. H.

AU - Dore, U.

AU - Espinal, X.

AU - Fechner, M.

AU - Fernandez, E.

AU - Fukuda, Y.

AU - Gomez-Cadenas, J.

AU - Gran, R.

AU - Hara, T.

AU - Hasegawa, M.

AU - Hasegawa, T.

AU - Hayashi, K.

AU - Hayato, Y.

AU - Helmer, R. L.

AU - Hill, J.

AU - Hiraide, K.

AU - Hosaka, J.

AU - Ichikawa, A. K.

AU - Iinuma, M.

AU - Ikeda, A.

AU - Inagaki, T.

AU - Ishida, T.

AU - Ishihara, K.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Ishitsuka, M.

AU - Itow, Y.

AU - Iwashita, T.

AU - Jang, H. I.

AU - Jeon, E. J.

AU - Jeong, I. S.

AU - Joo, K.

AU - Jover, G.

AU - Jung, C. K.

AU - Kajita, T.

AU - Kameda, J.

AU - Kaneyuki, K.

AU - Kato, I.

AU - Kearns, E.

AU - Kerr, D.

AU - Kim, C. O.

AU - Khabibullin, M.

AU - Khotjantsev, A.

AU - Kielczewska, D.

AU - Kim, J. Y.

AU - Kim, S.

AU - Kitching, P.

AU - Kobayashi, K.

AU - Kobayashi, T.

AU - Konaka, A.

AU - Koshio, Yusuke

AU - Kropp, W.

AU - Kubota, J.

AU - Kudenko, Y.

AU - Kuno, Y.

AU - Kutter, T.

AU - Learned, J.

AU - Likhoded, S.

AU - Lim, I. T.

AU - Loverre, P. F.

AU - Ludovici, L.

AU - Maesaka, H.

AU - Mallet, J.

AU - Mariani, C.

AU - Maruyama, T.

AU - Matsuno, S.

AU - Matveev, V.

AU - Mauger, C.

AU - McConnel, K.

AU - McGrew, C.

AU - Mikheyev, S.

AU - Minamino, A.

AU - Mine, S.

AU - Mineev, O.

AU - Mitsuda, C.

AU - Miura, M.

AU - Moriguchi, Y.

AU - Morita, T.

AU - Moriyama, S.

AU - Nakadaira, T.

AU - Nakahata, M.

AU - Nakamura, K.

AU - Nakano, I.

AU - Nakaya, T.

AU - Nakayama, S.

AU - Namba, T.

AU - Nambu, R.

AU - Nawang, S.

AU - Nishikawa, K.

AU - Nitta, K.

AU - Nova, F.

AU - Novella, P.

AU - Obayashi, Y.

AU - Okada, A.

AU - Okumura, K.

AU - Oser, S. M.

AU - Oyama, Y.

AU - Pac, M. Y.

AU - Pierre, F.

AU - Rodriguez, A.

AU - Saji, C.

AU - Sakuda, Makoto

AU - Sanchez, F.

AU - Sarrat, A.

AU - Sasaki, T.

AU - Scholberg, K.

AU - Schroeter, R.

AU - Sekiguchi, M.

AU - Sharkey, E.

AU - Shiozawa, M.

AU - Shiraishi, K.

AU - Sitjes, G.

AU - Smy, M.

AU - Sobel, H.

AU - Stone, J.

AU - Sulak, L.

AU - Suzuki, A.

AU - Suzuki, Y.

AU - Takahashi, T.

AU - Takenaga, Y.

AU - Takeuchi, Y.

AU - Taki, K.

AU - Takubo, Y.

AU - Tamura, N.

AU - Tanaka, M.

AU - Terri, R.

AU - T'Jampens, S.

AU - Tornero-Lopez, A.

AU - Totsuka, Y.

AU - Ueda, S.

AU - Vagins, M.

AU - Walter, C. W.

AU - Wang, W.

AU - Wilkes, R. J.

AU - Yamada, S.

AU - Yamamoto, S.

AU - Yanagisawa, C.

AU - Yershov, N.

AU - Yokoyama, H.

AU - Yokoyama, M.

AU - Yoo, J.

AU - Yoshida, M.

AU - Zalipska, J.

PY - 2005/3/4

Y1 - 2005/3/4

N2 - We present results for νμ oscillation in the KEK to Kamioka (K2K) long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. K2K uses an accelerator-produced νμ beam with a mean energy of 1.3 GeV directed at the Super-Kamiokande detector. We observed the energy-dependent disappearance of vmu;, which we presume have oscillated to ντ. The probability that we would observe these results if there is no neutrino oscillation is 0.0050% (4.0σ).

AB - We present results for νμ oscillation in the KEK to Kamioka (K2K) long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. K2K uses an accelerator-produced νμ beam with a mean energy of 1.3 GeV directed at the Super-Kamiokande detector. We observed the energy-dependent disappearance of vmu;, which we presume have oscillated to ντ. The probability that we would observe these results if there is no neutrino oscillation is 0.0050% (4.0σ).

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=18244367130&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=18244367130&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.081802

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.081802

M3 - Article

VL - 94

JO - Physical Review Letters

JF - Physical Review Letters

SN - 0031-9007

IS - 8

M1 - 081802

ER -