This paper describes the importance of ergonomics and cognitive engineering for the robot-human cooperation. First, the concepts of ergonomics and cognitive engineering are briefly explained. Together, the advantages and disadvantages of humans and machines (robots) are listed to compare features between humans and machines and discriminate humans from machines (robots). The transition of robot-human cooperation from the coexistence type to the cooperation type with the advanced automation technology and the elaboration of intelligent machines or robots is also pointed out. On the basis of the discussion, the problems in case of designing robot-human cooperation systems are pointed out and identified from the viewpoints of ergonomics and human factors. A few examples of results from the ergonomic and cognitive engineering research will be briefly described.