Epigenetic regulation in chondrogenesis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Epigenetics is an essential mechanism to control gene expression and fundamental cellular processes. DNA methylation in CpG-rich promoters correlates with gene silencing. Histone modification including histone acetylation and deacetylation determines the stability of the chromatin structure. Condensed chromatin (heterochromatin), which has a higher-order histone-DNA structure, prevents the access of transcriptional activators to their target genes. The fundamental unit of eukaryotic chromatin consists of 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer. Posttranslational modifications of the histone tail and the chromatin remodeling complex disrupt histone-DNA contacts and induce nucleosome mobilization. Histone acetylation of specific lysine residues in the histone tail plays a crucial role in epigenetic regulation. Histone acetylation is a dynamic process regulated by the antagonistic actions of 2 families of enzymes - the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and the histone deacetylases (HDACs). The balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation serves as a key epigenetic mechanism for transcription factor-dependent gene expression and the developmental process. We review emerging evidence that DNA methylation, histone acetylation modified by HAT and/or HDAC, and transcription factor-associated molecules contribute to a mechanism that can alter chromatin structure, gene expression, and cellular differentiation during chondrogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-161
Number of pages7
JournalActa Medica Okayama
Volume64
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010

Fingerprint

Chondrogenesis
Epigenomics
Histones
Acetylation
Chromatin
Gene expression
Histone Acetyltransferases
Histone Deacetylases
DNA Methylation
Gene Expression
DNA
Transcription Factors
Histone Code
Genes
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
Heterochromatin
Nucleosomes
Gene Silencing
Post Translational Protein Processing
Lysine

Keywords

  • Chondrogenesis
  • DNA methylation
  • Epigenetics
  • Histone acetylation and HAT
  • Histone deacetylation and HDAC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Epigenetic regulation in chondrogenesis. / Furumatsu, Takayuki; Ozaki, Toshihumi.

In: Acta Medica Okayama, Vol. 64, No. 3, 07.2010, p. 155-161.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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