Environmental and sociodemographic factors associated with household malaria burden in the Congo

Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Sakiko Kanbara, Andre Renzaho, Roger Wumba, Etongola P. Mbelambela, Sifa M.J. Muchanga, Basilua Andre Muzembo, Ngombe Leon-Kabamba, Choomplang Nattadech, Tomoko Suzuki, Numbi Oscar-Luboya, Koji Wada, Mitsunori Ikeda, Sayumi Nojima, Tomohiko Sugishita, Shunya Ikeda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Malaria is one of the most severe public health issues that result in massive morbidity and mortality in most countries of the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study aimed to determine the scope of household, accessibility to malaria care and factors associated with household malaria in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in an urban and a rural sites in which 152 households participated, including 82 urban and 70 rural households (1029 members in total). The 'malaria indicator questionnaire' (MIQ) was anonymously answered by household heads (respondents), reporting on malaria status of household members in the last 12 months. Results: There were 67.8% of households using insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) only, 14.0% used indoor residual spraying (IRS) only, 7.3% used ordinary bed nets (without insecticide treatment), 1.4% used mosquito repelling cream, 2.2% combined ITN and IRS, whereas 7.3% of households did not employ any preventive measure; p < 0.01). In addition, 96.7% of households were affected by malaria (at least one malaria case), and malaria frequency per household was relatively high (mean: 4.5 ± 3.1 cases reported) in the last 12 months. The mean individual malaria care expenditure was relatively high (101.6 ± 10.6 USD) in the previous 12 months; however, the majority of households (74.5%) earned less than 50 USD monthly. In addition, of the responders who suffered from malaria, 24.1% did not have access to malaria care at a health setting. Furthermore, a multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, education level and occupation showed that household size (OR = 1.43 ± 0.13; 95% CI 1.18-1.73; p < 0.001), inappropriate water source (OR = 2.41 ± 0.18; 95% CI 1.17-2.96; p < 0.05) absence of periodic water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in residential area (OR = 1.63 ± 1.15; 95% CI 1.10-2.54; p < 0.05), and rural residence (OR = 4.52 ± 2.47; 95% CI 1.54-13.21; p < 0.01) were associated with household malaria. Conclusion: This study showed that household size, income, WASH status and rural site were malaria-associated factors. Scaling up malaria prevention through improving WASH status in the residential environment may contribute to reducing the disease burden.

Original languageEnglish
Article number53
JournalMalaria Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 26 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Environment
  • Household malaria
  • Income
  • Sanitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases


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