Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of embolization using hydrogel-coated coils for the treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). Materials and methods: The outcomes of 21 PAVMs in 19 patients (3 men and 16 women; mean age, 58.8 ± 15.2 [SD] years; age range 14–78 years) treated by venous sac embolization (VSE) with additional feeding artery embolization were prospectively evaluated. For VSE, using one or more 0.018-inch hydrogel-coated coils was mandatory. Recanalization and/or reperfusion were evaluated by pulmonary arteriography 1 year after embolization. Results: The mean feeding artery and venous sac sizes were 4.0 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. Embolization was successfully completed in 20/21 PAVMs, yielding a technical success rate of 95%. The feeding artery was also embolized in 17/20 successful PAVMs (85%). A technical failure occurred in one PAVM, where embolization was abandoned because of migration of one bare coil to the left ventricle. The mean numbers of hydrogel-coated coils and bare platinum detachable coils used for VSE were 3.3 ± 2.1 (SD) (range, 1–8) and 4.4 ± 3.9 (SD) (range, 1–17), respectively. The mean percentages of hydrogel-coated coils in number, length, and estimated volume were 42.9%, 33.3%, and 72.7% respectively. One patient with one PAVM was lost to follow-up after 3 months. Neither recanalization nor reperfusion was noted in the remaining 19 PAVMs (success rate, 19/19 [100%]). One grade 4 (coil migration) adverse event occurred, and it was treated without any sequelae. Conclusion: VSE using hydrogel-coated coils with additional feeding artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for PAVM.
- Arteriovenous malformation
- Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging