Elemental mixing systematics and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry of mélange formation: Obstacles to identification of fluid sources to arc volcanics

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Abstract

We present major and trace element concentrations in conjunction with Sr-Nd isotope ratios to investigate the geochemical characteristics of mélange formation along the subduction zone slab-mantle interface. Mélange matrix of the Catalina Schist formed within an active subduction zone of the southern California borderland in Cretaceous time. Mélange formed through the synergistic effects of deformation and metasomatic fluid flow affecting peridotite, basaltic, and sedimentary protoliths to form hybridized bulk compositions not typical of seafloor "input" lithologies. In general, all elemental concentrations primarily reflect mechanical mixing processes, while fluid flow mediates all elemental systematics to a varying extent that is largely a function of inferred "mobility" for a particular element or the stability of suitable mineral hosts. Elemental data reveal that mineral stabilities defined by the evolution of bulk composition within mélange zones are probably the most important control of solid, liquid, or fluid geochemistry within the subduction system. Sr-Nd isotope ratios are highly variable and reflect contributions of mélange protoliths to varying extents. A weak mechanical mixing array present in Sr isotope data is strongly overprinted by a fluid signal that dominates mélange Sr systematics. Nd isotope data suggest that Nd is more conservative during metamorphism and is largely controlled by mechanical mixing. We argue that mélange formation is an intrinsic process to all subduction zones and that the geochemistry of mélange will impart the strongest control on the geochemistry of metasomatic agents (hydrous fluids, silicate melts, or miscible supercritical liquids) progressing to arc magmatic source regions in the mantle wedge. Mélange formation processes suggest that comparisons of subduction "inputs" to arc volcanic "outputs" as a means to infer recycling at subduction zones dangerously over-simplify the physics of the mass transfer in subduction zones, as subducted mass is consistently redistributed into novel bulk compositions. Such mélange zones along the slab-mantle interface simultaneously bear characteristic elemental or isotopic signals of several distinct input lithologies, while experiencing phase equilibria not typical of any input. We recommend that future studies explore the phase equilibria of hybridized systems and mineral trace element residency, as these processes provide for a physical baseline from which it will be possible to follow the path of subducted mass through the system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)288-304
Number of pages17
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume246
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 30 2006

Keywords

  • geochemistry
  • isotope geochemistry
  • metamorphic
  • mélange
  • petrology
  • subduction zones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

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