Electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex exerts antiapoptotic, angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects in ischemic stroke rats through phosphoinositide 3-kinase/akt signaling pathway

Tanefumi Baba, Masahiro Kameda, Takao Yasuhara, Takamasa Morimoto Akihiko Kondo, Tetsuro Shingo, Naoki Tajiri, Feifei Wang, Yasuyuki Miyoshi, Cesario V. Borlongan, Mitsunori Matsumae, Isao Date

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

84 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-: Neuroprotective effects of electric stimulation have been recently shown in ischemic stroke, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. METHODS-: Adult Wistar rats weighing 200 to 250 g received occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 90 minutes. At 1 hour after reperfusion, electrodes were implanted to rats on the right frontal epidural space. Electric stimulation, at preset current (0 to 200 μA) and frequency (0 to 50 Hz), was performed for 1 week. Stroke animals were subjected to behavioral tests at 3 days and 1 week postmiddle cerebral artery and then immediately euthanized for protein and immunohistochemical assays. After demonstration of behavioral and histological benefits, subsequent experiments pursued the mechanistic hypothesis that electric stimulation exerted antiapoptotic effects through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent pathway; thus, cortical stimulation was performed in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (LY294002) in stroke rats. RESULTS-: Cortical stimulation abrogated the ischemia-associated increase in apoptotic cells in the injured cortex by activating antiapoptotic cascades, which was reversed by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 as reflected behaviorally and immunohistochemically. Furthermore, brain levels of neurotrophic factors (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor) were upregulated, which coincided with enhanced angiogenesis and suppressed proliferation of inflammatory cells in the ischemic cortex. CONCLUSIONS-: These results suggest that electric stimulation prevents apoptosis through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Consequently, the ischemic brain might have been rendered as a nurturing microenvironment characterized by robust angiogenesis and diminished microglial/astrocytic proliferation, resulting in the reduction of infarct volumes and behavioral recovery. Electric stimulation is a novel and potent therapeutic tool for cerebral ischemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e598-e605
JournalStroke
Volume40
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2009

Keywords

  • Angiogenesis
  • Apoptosis
  • Neurotrophic factor
  • Regenerative therapy
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing

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