Electrical conductivity of enstatite as a function of water content: Implications for the electrical structure in the upper mantle

Baohua Zhang, Takashi Yoshino, Xiaoping Wu, Takuya Matsuzaki, Shuangming Shan, Tomoo Katsura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The electrical conductivity of Ca-free aluminous enstatite with various water contents has been determined at a pressure of 3GPa in a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus. Impedance spectroscopy was performed for both hydrogen-doped and -undoped samples in a frequency range from 0.1Hz to 1MHz to examine the effect of water on conductivity. Two conduction mechanisms were identified for hydrogen-undoped samples at temperature of 1000-1723K and for hydrogen-doped samples at relatively lower temperature range of 500-900K to minimize dehydration of samples. For the hydrogen-undoped samples, the activation enthalpy is around 1.9eV at the higher temperatures range (>1300K) suggesting that the dominant charge transfer mechanism is Fe2+-Fe3+ hopping (small polaron) conduction. For the hydrogen-doped samples measured below 900K, the activation enthalpy decreases from 1.11 to 0.70eV, and the conductivity values systematically increase with increasing water content, suggesting that proton conduction is the dominant conduction mechanism. Taking hopping conduction and water content dependence of activation enthalpy for proton conduction into account, all electrical conductivity data were fitted to the formula σ=σ0hexp(-Hh/kT)+σ0pCwexp[-(Hp 0-αCw 1/3)/kT], where σ0 is pre-exponential factor, Cw is the water content in weight percent, H is the activation enthalpy, Hp 0 is the activation enthalpy for proton conduction at very low water concentration, α is the geometrical factor, k is the Boltzmann constant, T is absolution temperature and subscripts h and p represent hopping and proton conductions, respectively. Using the present results, a laboratory-based conductivity-depth profile in the Earth's upper mantle has been constructed as a function of water content. Comparison of our model with the currently available geophysical observations beneath the Eastern Pacific Rise indicates that hydrous aluminous enstatite cannot account for the high conductivity anomaly at the top of the asthenosphere as well as hydrous olivine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-20
Number of pages10
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume357-358
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2012

Fingerprint

enstatite
enthalpy
Water content
moisture content
electrical conductivity
upper mantle
Hydrogen
Enthalpy
Earth mantle
Chemical activation
water content
hydrogen
Protons
conduction
conductivity
electrical resistivity
activation
protons
Gene Conversion
Temperature

Keywords

  • Electrical conductivity
  • Orthopyroxene
  • Upper mantle
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Electrical conductivity of enstatite as a function of water content : Implications for the electrical structure in the upper mantle. / Zhang, Baohua; Yoshino, Takashi; Wu, Xiaoping; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Shan, Shuangming; Katsura, Tomoo.

In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 357-358, 01.12.2012, p. 11-20.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhang, Baohua ; Yoshino, Takashi ; Wu, Xiaoping ; Matsuzaki, Takuya ; Shan, Shuangming ; Katsura, Tomoo. / Electrical conductivity of enstatite as a function of water content : Implications for the electrical structure in the upper mantle. In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2012 ; Vol. 357-358. pp. 11-20.
@article{c291acddc23444a682b7948e4cfde805,
title = "Electrical conductivity of enstatite as a function of water content: Implications for the electrical structure in the upper mantle",
abstract = "The electrical conductivity of Ca-free aluminous enstatite with various water contents has been determined at a pressure of 3GPa in a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus. Impedance spectroscopy was performed for both hydrogen-doped and -undoped samples in a frequency range from 0.1Hz to 1MHz to examine the effect of water on conductivity. Two conduction mechanisms were identified for hydrogen-undoped samples at temperature of 1000-1723K and for hydrogen-doped samples at relatively lower temperature range of 500-900K to minimize dehydration of samples. For the hydrogen-undoped samples, the activation enthalpy is around 1.9eV at the higher temperatures range (>1300K) suggesting that the dominant charge transfer mechanism is Fe2+-Fe3+ hopping (small polaron) conduction. For the hydrogen-doped samples measured below 900K, the activation enthalpy decreases from 1.11 to 0.70eV, and the conductivity values systematically increase with increasing water content, suggesting that proton conduction is the dominant conduction mechanism. Taking hopping conduction and water content dependence of activation enthalpy for proton conduction into account, all electrical conductivity data were fitted to the formula σ=σ0hexp(-Hh/kT)+σ0pCwexp[-(Hp 0-αCw 1/3)/kT], where σ0 is pre-exponential factor, Cw is the water content in weight percent, H is the activation enthalpy, Hp 0 is the activation enthalpy for proton conduction at very low water concentration, α is the geometrical factor, k is the Boltzmann constant, T is absolution temperature and subscripts h and p represent hopping and proton conductions, respectively. Using the present results, a laboratory-based conductivity-depth profile in the Earth's upper mantle has been constructed as a function of water content. Comparison of our model with the currently available geophysical observations beneath the Eastern Pacific Rise indicates that hydrous aluminous enstatite cannot account for the high conductivity anomaly at the top of the asthenosphere as well as hydrous olivine.",
keywords = "Electrical conductivity, Orthopyroxene, Upper mantle, Water",
author = "Baohua Zhang and Takashi Yoshino and Xiaoping Wu and Takuya Matsuzaki and Shuangming Shan and Tomoo Katsura",
year = "2012",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.epsl.2012.09.020",
language = "English",
volume = "357-358",
pages = "11--20",
journal = "Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters",
issn = "0012-821X",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electrical conductivity of enstatite as a function of water content

T2 - Implications for the electrical structure in the upper mantle

AU - Zhang, Baohua

AU - Yoshino, Takashi

AU - Wu, Xiaoping

AU - Matsuzaki, Takuya

AU - Shan, Shuangming

AU - Katsura, Tomoo

PY - 2012/12/1

Y1 - 2012/12/1

N2 - The electrical conductivity of Ca-free aluminous enstatite with various water contents has been determined at a pressure of 3GPa in a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus. Impedance spectroscopy was performed for both hydrogen-doped and -undoped samples in a frequency range from 0.1Hz to 1MHz to examine the effect of water on conductivity. Two conduction mechanisms were identified for hydrogen-undoped samples at temperature of 1000-1723K and for hydrogen-doped samples at relatively lower temperature range of 500-900K to minimize dehydration of samples. For the hydrogen-undoped samples, the activation enthalpy is around 1.9eV at the higher temperatures range (>1300K) suggesting that the dominant charge transfer mechanism is Fe2+-Fe3+ hopping (small polaron) conduction. For the hydrogen-doped samples measured below 900K, the activation enthalpy decreases from 1.11 to 0.70eV, and the conductivity values systematically increase with increasing water content, suggesting that proton conduction is the dominant conduction mechanism. Taking hopping conduction and water content dependence of activation enthalpy for proton conduction into account, all electrical conductivity data were fitted to the formula σ=σ0hexp(-Hh/kT)+σ0pCwexp[-(Hp 0-αCw 1/3)/kT], where σ0 is pre-exponential factor, Cw is the water content in weight percent, H is the activation enthalpy, Hp 0 is the activation enthalpy for proton conduction at very low water concentration, α is the geometrical factor, k is the Boltzmann constant, T is absolution temperature and subscripts h and p represent hopping and proton conductions, respectively. Using the present results, a laboratory-based conductivity-depth profile in the Earth's upper mantle has been constructed as a function of water content. Comparison of our model with the currently available geophysical observations beneath the Eastern Pacific Rise indicates that hydrous aluminous enstatite cannot account for the high conductivity anomaly at the top of the asthenosphere as well as hydrous olivine.

AB - The electrical conductivity of Ca-free aluminous enstatite with various water contents has been determined at a pressure of 3GPa in a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus. Impedance spectroscopy was performed for both hydrogen-doped and -undoped samples in a frequency range from 0.1Hz to 1MHz to examine the effect of water on conductivity. Two conduction mechanisms were identified for hydrogen-undoped samples at temperature of 1000-1723K and for hydrogen-doped samples at relatively lower temperature range of 500-900K to minimize dehydration of samples. For the hydrogen-undoped samples, the activation enthalpy is around 1.9eV at the higher temperatures range (>1300K) suggesting that the dominant charge transfer mechanism is Fe2+-Fe3+ hopping (small polaron) conduction. For the hydrogen-doped samples measured below 900K, the activation enthalpy decreases from 1.11 to 0.70eV, and the conductivity values systematically increase with increasing water content, suggesting that proton conduction is the dominant conduction mechanism. Taking hopping conduction and water content dependence of activation enthalpy for proton conduction into account, all electrical conductivity data were fitted to the formula σ=σ0hexp(-Hh/kT)+σ0pCwexp[-(Hp 0-αCw 1/3)/kT], where σ0 is pre-exponential factor, Cw is the water content in weight percent, H is the activation enthalpy, Hp 0 is the activation enthalpy for proton conduction at very low water concentration, α is the geometrical factor, k is the Boltzmann constant, T is absolution temperature and subscripts h and p represent hopping and proton conductions, respectively. Using the present results, a laboratory-based conductivity-depth profile in the Earth's upper mantle has been constructed as a function of water content. Comparison of our model with the currently available geophysical observations beneath the Eastern Pacific Rise indicates that hydrous aluminous enstatite cannot account for the high conductivity anomaly at the top of the asthenosphere as well as hydrous olivine.

KW - Electrical conductivity

KW - Orthopyroxene

KW - Upper mantle

KW - Water

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84867593494&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84867593494&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.09.020

DO - 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.09.020

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84867593494

VL - 357-358

SP - 11

EP - 20

JO - Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters

JF - Earth and Planetary Sciences Letters

SN - 0012-821X

ER -