Effluent free radicals are associated with residual renal function and predict technique failure in peritoneal dialysis patients

Hiroshi Morinaga, Hitoshi Sugiyama, Tatsuyuki Inoue, Keiichi Takiue, Yoko Kikumoto, Masashi Kitagawa, Shigeru Akagi, Kazushi Nakao, Yohei Maeshima, Ikuko Miyazaki, Masato Asanuma, Makoto Hiramatsu, Hirofumi Makino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Residual renal function (RRF) is associated with low oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis (PD). In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the impact of oxidative stress on RRF and patient outcomes during PD. Methods: Levels of free radicals (FRs) in effluent from the overnight dwell in 45 outpatients were determined by electron spin resonance spectrometry. The FR levels, clinical parameters, and the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were evaluated at study start. The effects of effluent FR level on technique and patient survival were analyzed in a prospective cohort followed for 24 months. Results: Levels of effluent FRs showed significant negative correlations with daily urine volume and residual renal Kt/V, and positive correlations with plasma β2-microglobulin and effluent 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. A highly significant difference in technique survival (p < 0.05), but not patient survival, was observed for patients grouped by effluent FR quartile. The effluent FR level was independently associated with technique failure after adjusting for patient age, history of cardiovascular disease, and presence of diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001). The level of effluent FRs was associated with death-censored technique failure in both univariate (p < 0.001) and multivariate (p < 0.01) hazard models. Compared with patients remaining on PD, those withdrawn from the modality had significantly higher levels of effluent FRs (p < 0.005). Conclusions: Elevated effluent FRs are associated with RRF and technique failure in stable PD patients. These findings highlight the importance of oxidative stress as an unfavorable prognostic factor in PD and emphasize that steps should be taken to minimize oxidative stress in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-461
Number of pages9
JournalPeritoneal Dialysis International
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012


  • Dialysate
  • Electron spin resonance
  • Free radicals
  • Oxidative stress
  • Residual renal function
  • α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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