OBJECTIVES: The reported 1- and 3-year overall survival rates after esophagectomy for stage I superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC) are 95-97% and 86%, and those after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are 98% and 89%, respectively. This study was performed to elucidate the efficacy and safety of another treatment option for SESCC: endoscopic resection (ER) followed by CRT.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the overall survival, recurrence, and grade ≥3 adverse events of consecutive patients who refused esophagectomy and underwent ER followed by CRT for SESCC from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012.
RESULTS: In total, 66 patients with SESCC underwent ER followed by CRT during the study period, and complete follow-up data were available for all patients. The median age was 67 (range, 45-82) years, and the median observation period was 51 (range, 7-103) months. Local and metastatic recurrences occurred in 2 (3%) and 6 (9%) patients, respectively, and 17 (26%) patients died. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 98%, 87%, and 75%, respectively. One of the 23 patients with mucosal cancer and 5 of 43 with submucosal cancer developed metastatic recurrences (P=0.65). Five of the 61 patients with negative vertical resection margin and 1 of 5 with positive vertical resection margin developed metastatic recurrences (P=0.39). None of the 30 patients without lymphovascular involvement developed metastatic recurrences; however, 6 of 36 patients with lymphovascular involvement developed metastatic recurrences (P=0.0098). Grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in 21 (32%) patients and all adverse events were associated with CRT, hematological adverse events in 13 (20%), and non-hematological adverse events in 9 (14%).
CONCLUSIONS: ER followed by CRT provides survival comparable with that of esophagectomy or definitive CRT and has a low local recurrence rate. A particularly favorable outcome is expected for cancers without lymphovascular involvement.