Effects of quaternary ammonium-methacrylates on the mechanical properties of unfilled resins

Tomohiro Hoshika, Yoshihiro Nishitani, Masahiro Yoshiyama, William O. Key, William Brantley, Kelli A. Agee, Lorenzo Breschi, Milena Cadenaro, Franklin R. Tay, Frederick Rueggeberg, David H. Pashley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective. Adding antimicrobial/anti-MMP quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) tocomonomer blends should not weaken the mechanical properties of dental resins. This workevaluated the degree conversion and mechanical properties of BisGMA/TEGDMA/HEMA(60:30:10) containing 0-15 mass% QAMs A-E (A: 2-acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammo-nium chloride; B: [3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride; C: [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride; D: diallyldimethyl ammoniumchloride; E: 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyltrimethyl ammonium methyl sulfate.

Methods. Unfilled resins with and without QAM were placed on ATR-FTIR and light-polymerized for 20 s in a thin film at 30°C. Unfilled resin beams were casted from squarehollow glass tubings. Half of the beams were tested after 3 days of drying (control); the otherhalf were tested wet after 3 days of water storage.

Results. Addition of QAMs in control resins significantly increased conversion 600 s afterlight termination, with the exception of 5% MAPTAC (p <0.05). Increase of QAM contentwithin a formulation significantly increased conversion. Control beams gave dry Young'smoduli of ∼700 MPa. Addition of 5, 10 or 15 mass% QAMs produced significant reductionsin dry Young's moduli except for 5% B or C. 15 mass% A, B and C lowered the wet Young'smoduli of the resin beams by more than 30%. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) of controldry resin was 89 ± 11 MPa. Addition of 5-10 mass% QAMs had no adverse effect on the dryUTS. After water storage, the UTS of all resin blends fell significantly (p <0.05), especiallywhen 15 wt% QAMs was added. Control dry beams gave fracture toughness (KIC) values of0.88 ± 0.1 MPa m1/2. Wet values were significantly higher at 1.02 ± 0.06 (p <0.05). KIC of dry beams varied from 0.85 ± 0.08 at 5% QAMs to 0.49 ± 0.05 at 15% QAMs. Wet beams gave KIC values of 1.02 ± 0.06 MPa m1/2 that fell to 0.23 ± 0.01 at 15% QAMs.

Significance. Addition of 10% QAMs increased the degree of conversion of unfilled resins, but lowered wet toughness and UTS; addition of 15% QAMs lowered the mechanical properties of wet resins below acceptable levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1213-1223
Number of pages11
JournalDental Materials
Volume30
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2014

Fingerprint

Methacrylates
Ammonium Compounds
Resins
Mechanical properties
Tensile stress
Chlorides
Tubing
Synthetic Resins
Toughness
Ammonium Chloride
Fracture toughness
Water
Drying
Elastic Modulus
Elastic moduli
Ammonium Sulfate
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Glass
Thin films

Keywords

  • Dry-testing
  • Fracture toughness
  • methacrylates
  • Percent-conversion
  • Quaternary ammonium
  • TPO
  • Ultimate tensile strength
  • Wet-testing
  • Young's modulus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Hoshika, T., Nishitani, Y., Yoshiyama, M., Key, W. O., Brantley, W., Agee, K. A., ... Pashley, D. H. (2014). Effects of quaternary ammonium-methacrylates on the mechanical properties of unfilled resins. Dental Materials, 30(11), 1213-1223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2014.08.365

Effects of quaternary ammonium-methacrylates on the mechanical properties of unfilled resins. / Hoshika, Tomohiro; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Key, William O.; Brantley, William; Agee, Kelli A.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Cadenaro, Milena; Tay, Franklin R.; Rueggeberg, Frederick; Pashley, David H.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 30, No. 11, 01.11.2014, p. 1213-1223.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hoshika, T, Nishitani, Y, Yoshiyama, M, Key, WO, Brantley, W, Agee, KA, Breschi, L, Cadenaro, M, Tay, FR, Rueggeberg, F & Pashley, DH 2014, 'Effects of quaternary ammonium-methacrylates on the mechanical properties of unfilled resins', Dental Materials, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1213-1223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2014.08.365
Hoshika, Tomohiro ; Nishitani, Yoshihiro ; Yoshiyama, Masahiro ; Key, William O. ; Brantley, William ; Agee, Kelli A. ; Breschi, Lorenzo ; Cadenaro, Milena ; Tay, Franklin R. ; Rueggeberg, Frederick ; Pashley, David H. / Effects of quaternary ammonium-methacrylates on the mechanical properties of unfilled resins. In: Dental Materials. 2014 ; Vol. 30, No. 11. pp. 1213-1223.
@article{7d38150163d04735ae98eae144285048,
title = "Effects of quaternary ammonium-methacrylates on the mechanical properties of unfilled resins",
abstract = "Objective. Adding antimicrobial/anti-MMP quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) tocomonomer blends should not weaken the mechanical properties of dental resins. This workevaluated the degree conversion and mechanical properties of BisGMA/TEGDMA/HEMA(60:30:10) containing 0-15 mass{\%} QAMs A-E (A: 2-acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammo-nium chloride; B: [3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride; C: [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride; D: diallyldimethyl ammoniumchloride; E: 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyltrimethyl ammonium methyl sulfate.Methods. Unfilled resins with and without QAM were placed on ATR-FTIR and light-polymerized for 20 s in a thin film at 30°C. Unfilled resin beams were casted from squarehollow glass tubings. Half of the beams were tested after 3 days of drying (control); the otherhalf were tested wet after 3 days of water storage.Results. Addition of QAMs in control resins significantly increased conversion 600 s afterlight termination, with the exception of 5{\%} MAPTAC (p <0.05). Increase of QAM contentwithin a formulation significantly increased conversion. Control beams gave dry Young'smoduli of ∼700 MPa. Addition of 5, 10 or 15 mass{\%} QAMs produced significant reductionsin dry Young's moduli except for 5{\%} B or C. 15 mass{\%} A, B and C lowered the wet Young'smoduli of the resin beams by more than 30{\%}. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) of controldry resin was 89 ± 11 MPa. Addition of 5-10 mass{\%} QAMs had no adverse effect on the dryUTS. After water storage, the UTS of all resin blends fell significantly (p <0.05), especiallywhen 15 wt{\%} QAMs was added. Control dry beams gave fracture toughness (KIC) values of0.88 ± 0.1 MPa m1/2. Wet values were significantly higher at 1.02 ± 0.06 (p <0.05). KIC of dry beams varied from 0.85 ± 0.08 at 5{\%} QAMs to 0.49 ± 0.05 at 15{\%} QAMs. Wet beams gave KIC values of 1.02 ± 0.06 MPa m1/2 that fell to 0.23 ± 0.01 at 15{\%} QAMs.Significance. Addition of 10{\%} QAMs increased the degree of conversion of unfilled resins, but lowered wet toughness and UTS; addition of 15{\%} QAMs lowered the mechanical properties of wet resins below acceptable levels.",
keywords = "Dry-testing, Fracture toughness, methacrylates, Percent-conversion, Quaternary ammonium, TPO, Ultimate tensile strength, Wet-testing, Young's modulus",
author = "Tomohiro Hoshika and Yoshihiro Nishitani and Masahiro Yoshiyama and Key, {William O.} and William Brantley and Agee, {Kelli A.} and Lorenzo Breschi and Milena Cadenaro and Tay, {Franklin R.} and Frederick Rueggeberg and Pashley, {David H.}",
year = "2014",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.dental.2014.08.365",
language = "English",
volume = "30",
pages = "1213--1223",
journal = "Dental Materials",
issn = "0109-5641",
publisher = "Elsevier Science",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of quaternary ammonium-methacrylates on the mechanical properties of unfilled resins

AU - Hoshika, Tomohiro

AU - Nishitani, Yoshihiro

AU - Yoshiyama, Masahiro

AU - Key, William O.

AU - Brantley, William

AU - Agee, Kelli A.

AU - Breschi, Lorenzo

AU - Cadenaro, Milena

AU - Tay, Franklin R.

AU - Rueggeberg, Frederick

AU - Pashley, David H.

PY - 2014/11/1

Y1 - 2014/11/1

N2 - Objective. Adding antimicrobial/anti-MMP quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) tocomonomer blends should not weaken the mechanical properties of dental resins. This workevaluated the degree conversion and mechanical properties of BisGMA/TEGDMA/HEMA(60:30:10) containing 0-15 mass% QAMs A-E (A: 2-acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammo-nium chloride; B: [3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride; C: [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride; D: diallyldimethyl ammoniumchloride; E: 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyltrimethyl ammonium methyl sulfate.Methods. Unfilled resins with and without QAM were placed on ATR-FTIR and light-polymerized for 20 s in a thin film at 30°C. Unfilled resin beams were casted from squarehollow glass tubings. Half of the beams were tested after 3 days of drying (control); the otherhalf were tested wet after 3 days of water storage.Results. Addition of QAMs in control resins significantly increased conversion 600 s afterlight termination, with the exception of 5% MAPTAC (p <0.05). Increase of QAM contentwithin a formulation significantly increased conversion. Control beams gave dry Young'smoduli of ∼700 MPa. Addition of 5, 10 or 15 mass% QAMs produced significant reductionsin dry Young's moduli except for 5% B or C. 15 mass% A, B and C lowered the wet Young'smoduli of the resin beams by more than 30%. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) of controldry resin was 89 ± 11 MPa. Addition of 5-10 mass% QAMs had no adverse effect on the dryUTS. After water storage, the UTS of all resin blends fell significantly (p <0.05), especiallywhen 15 wt% QAMs was added. Control dry beams gave fracture toughness (KIC) values of0.88 ± 0.1 MPa m1/2. Wet values were significantly higher at 1.02 ± 0.06 (p <0.05). KIC of dry beams varied from 0.85 ± 0.08 at 5% QAMs to 0.49 ± 0.05 at 15% QAMs. Wet beams gave KIC values of 1.02 ± 0.06 MPa m1/2 that fell to 0.23 ± 0.01 at 15% QAMs.Significance. Addition of 10% QAMs increased the degree of conversion of unfilled resins, but lowered wet toughness and UTS; addition of 15% QAMs lowered the mechanical properties of wet resins below acceptable levels.

AB - Objective. Adding antimicrobial/anti-MMP quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) tocomonomer blends should not weaken the mechanical properties of dental resins. This workevaluated the degree conversion and mechanical properties of BisGMA/TEGDMA/HEMA(60:30:10) containing 0-15 mass% QAMs A-E (A: 2-acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammo-nium chloride; B: [3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride; C: [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride; D: diallyldimethyl ammoniumchloride; E: 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyltrimethyl ammonium methyl sulfate.Methods. Unfilled resins with and without QAM were placed on ATR-FTIR and light-polymerized for 20 s in a thin film at 30°C. Unfilled resin beams were casted from squarehollow glass tubings. Half of the beams were tested after 3 days of drying (control); the otherhalf were tested wet after 3 days of water storage.Results. Addition of QAMs in control resins significantly increased conversion 600 s afterlight termination, with the exception of 5% MAPTAC (p <0.05). Increase of QAM contentwithin a formulation significantly increased conversion. Control beams gave dry Young'smoduli of ∼700 MPa. Addition of 5, 10 or 15 mass% QAMs produced significant reductionsin dry Young's moduli except for 5% B or C. 15 mass% A, B and C lowered the wet Young'smoduli of the resin beams by more than 30%. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) of controldry resin was 89 ± 11 MPa. Addition of 5-10 mass% QAMs had no adverse effect on the dryUTS. After water storage, the UTS of all resin blends fell significantly (p <0.05), especiallywhen 15 wt% QAMs was added. Control dry beams gave fracture toughness (KIC) values of0.88 ± 0.1 MPa m1/2. Wet values were significantly higher at 1.02 ± 0.06 (p <0.05). KIC of dry beams varied from 0.85 ± 0.08 at 5% QAMs to 0.49 ± 0.05 at 15% QAMs. Wet beams gave KIC values of 1.02 ± 0.06 MPa m1/2 that fell to 0.23 ± 0.01 at 15% QAMs.Significance. Addition of 10% QAMs increased the degree of conversion of unfilled resins, but lowered wet toughness and UTS; addition of 15% QAMs lowered the mechanical properties of wet resins below acceptable levels.

KW - Dry-testing

KW - Fracture toughness

KW - methacrylates

KW - Percent-conversion

KW - Quaternary ammonium

KW - TPO

KW - Ultimate tensile strength

KW - Wet-testing

KW - Young's modulus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84908137557&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84908137557&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.dental.2014.08.365

DO - 10.1016/j.dental.2014.08.365

M3 - Article

C2 - 25199439

AN - SCOPUS:84908137557

VL - 30

SP - 1213

EP - 1223

JO - Dental Materials

JF - Dental Materials

SN - 0109-5641

IS - 11

ER -