The solvation of halide ions at the water/vapor interface is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations with nonpolarizable molecular mechanical (MM), polarizable MM, and quantum mechanical (QM)/MM methods. The free energy profile of the ion solvation is decomposed into the energy and the entropic contributions along the ion displacement from inside to the surface of water. It is found that the surface affinity of the ion, relative to the bulk value, is determined by a subtle balance between the energetic destabilization and the entropic stabilization with the ion displacement. The amount of energetic destabilization is found to be reduced when nonadditive interactions are included, as in the polarizable MM and QM/MM models. The structure of water around the ion at the interface is also largely modified when the higher order effects are considered. For example, the induced dipole effect enhances the solvation structure around the ion at the interface significantly and thus reduces the amount of entropic stabilization at the interface, relative to in the bulk. It is found that this induced dipole effect causes the slowing in the ion-water hydrogen bond dynamics at the interface. On the other hand, the higher order induced multipole effects in the QM/MM method suppress both the excessive enhancement of the solvation structure and the slowing of the ion-water hydrogen bond dynamics at the interface. The present study demonstrates that not only the induced dipole moment but also the higher order induced multipole moments, which are neglected in standard empirical models, are essential for the correct description of the ion solvation at the water/vapor interface.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry